Phytocannabinoids are the herbal, natural and classical cannabinoids found in the cannabis plant. The glandular structure called the trichomes is where the concentrated viscous resin of the plant is found. There are over 60 cannabinoids that have been isolated from the plant. Tetrahydracannabinol (THC), Cannabidiol (CBD) and Cannabinol (CBN) are the most prevalent ones and have also been the most studied. Cannabidiol (CBD) accounts for up to 40% of the plant’s extract. It has been widely reported that CBD offers the greatest possible benefits of any of the extracts found in the plant. CBD can also be derived from hemp. Hemp and cannabis both contain large amounts of natural CBD, but hemp is naturally low in THC; thus, making it easier for manufacturers to create high CBD-infused products with low to non-existent THC levels. Since THC is (mostly) still illegal in the United States, most CBD items we carry are derived from hemp. Each CBD product varies in the amount of CBD and THC levels found in the product. No items we carry are over the legal limit of THC levels, which is 0.3%, according to U.S. Federal Law.
Hemp seed oil has been dubbed "Nature's most perfectly balanced oil", due to the fact that it contains the perfectly balanced 3:1 ratio of Omega 6 (linolei/LA) to Omega 3 (alpha-linolenic/LNA) essential fatty acids, determined to be the optimum requirement for long-term healthy human nutrition. In addition, it also contains smaller amounts of 3 other polyunsaturated fatty acids in gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), oleic acid and stearidonic acid. The EFA combination is unique among edible oil seeds.
^ Blest-Hopley G, Giampietro V, Bhattacharyya S (May 2018). "Residual effects of cannabis use in adolescent and adult brains - A meta-analysis of fMRI studies". Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews. 88: 26–41. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2018.03.008. PMID 29535069. This may reflect the multitude of cognitive tasks employed by the various studies included in these meta-analyses, all of which involved performing a task thereby requiring the participant to reorient their attention and attempt to solve the problem at hand and suggest that greater engagement of this region indicates less efficient cognitive performance in cannabis users in general, irrespective of their age.
I suffer from Fibromyalgia, spinal stenosis, osteoporosis, arthritis, and 66 yeas of wear and tear. I was overwhelmed by the endless varieties of hemp oil even after reading all the product info, so I chose to go with Amazon’s pick.this has a subtle mint flavor and within 2days, I was seeing a reduction in pain, better mood, and improvements in my brain fog. They have a loyal customer now. Even the headache I have had for 6 months since being put on Gabapentin is gone which means I no longer take Advil like tic tacs!
CBD and THC interact with our bodies in a variety of ways. One of the main ways they impact us is by mimicking and augmenting the effects of the compounds in our bodies called “endogenous cannabinoids” - so named because of their similarity to the compounds found in the cannabis plant. These “endocannabinoids” are part of a regulatory system called the “endocannabinoid system”.
CBD strains can be consumed just as you would THC strains. You can smoke or vaporize CBD-rich flower, eat a CBD-infused edible, swallow a CBD oil capsule, apply a CBD lotion, or use a CBD tincture sublingually. Hemp products also contain CBD, though it is a less efficient source and lacks the beneficial chemical diversity of cannabis-derived CBD products (more on that here).
Some CBD oil brands can be evasive when it comes to product testing details. Populum addresses this by including a hard copy of the oil’s lab testing results in the product packaging. Full lab results are easily accessible on the brand’s website, as well. Prices for the Populum CBD oil range from 18 to 24 cents per milligram, depending on the container size, making it a relatively inexpensive full spectrum product. All U.S. military veterans receive a 25% discount, as well. Populum offers a risk-free 30-night product trial.
Molecular analytical techniques developed in the late 20th century are being applied to questions of taxonomic classification. This has resulted in many reclassifications based on evolutionary systematics. Several studies of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and other types of genetic markers have been conducted on drug and fiber strains of Cannabis, primarily for plant breeding and forensic purposes.[74][75][25][76][77] Dutch Cannabis researcher E.P.M. de Meijer and coworkers described some of their RAPD studies as showing an "extremely high" degree of genetic polymorphism between and within populations, suggesting a high degree of potential variation for selection, even in heavily selected hemp cultivars.[37] They also commented that these analyses confirm the continuity of the Cannabis gene pool throughout the studied accessions, and provide further confirmation that the genus consists of a single species, although theirs was not a systematic study per se.

The vast majority of subjects in Sativex clinical trials do not experience psychotropic effects outside of initial dose titration intervals (Figure 2) and most often report subjective intoxication levels on visual analogue scales that are indistinguishable from placebo, in the single digits out of 100 (Wade et al 2006). Thus, it is now longer tenable to claim that psychoactive effects are a necessary prerequisite to symptom relief in the therapeutic setting with a standardized intermediate onset cannabis-based preparation. Intoxication has remained a persistent issue in Marinol usage (Calhoun et al 1998), in contrast.


But he wasn’t finished. In February of 1980, Dr. Mechoulam teamed up with South American researchers to publish a study regarding cannabis and epilepsy. This study is seen as one of the earliest double-blind studies of CBD on clinical subjects. The study Dr. Mechoulam and his team conducted included 16 people, many of whom were children, who all suffered from severe epilepsy. The results were startling: Every subject who received CBD experienced improvement in their condition with little to no side effects. This anticonvulsant study has since proven to be an integral milestone in the world of clinical marijuana research, but largely went unnoticed at the time.
If you act today, you can see results and save money with CBD Pain Cream. Because, right now, CBD Pain Cream is offering a discount to all first-time customers. You can get your coupon in your email if you act today. Then, you get to save some money on this life changing solution. If you’re tired of being dependent on expensive and dangerous prescription drugs, this is for you. Don’t let pain hold you back anymore! Your life is worth more than that. Get on with your life and live pain-free with your CBD Pain Cream order. It’s going to make life so much easier.
An alternative to the gateway hypothesis is the common liability to addiction (CLA) theory. It states that some individuals are, for various reasons, willing to try multiple recreational substances. The "gateway" drugs are merely those that are (usually) available at an earlier age than the harder drugs. Researchers have noted in an extensive review that it is dangerous to present the sequence of events described in gateway "theory" in causative terms as this hinders both research and intervention.[270]
FDA is not aware of any evidence that would call into question its current conclusions that THC and CBD products are excluded from the dietary supplement definition under sections 201(ff)(3)(B)(i) and (ii) of the FD&C Act. Interested parties may present the agency with any evidence that they think has bearing on this issue.  Our continuing review of information that has been submitted thus far has not called our conclusions into question.
Years passed, and more studies rolled out with medically beneficial findings regarding cannabis until 2009 when Steep Hill Laboratory in Oakland, California, tested cannabis samples provided by Harborside Health Center to discover that a handful of cultivars contained more CBD than THC. This discovery kicked other labs into gear. They wanted to study medical cannabis to understand and potentially calibrate their cannabinoid ratios. Soon thereafter, laboratories uncovered CBD-dominant strains boasting 20:1 CBD to THC ratios, which opened up the cannabis market for a panoply of CBD products.
exhaustion and pain that kept her on the couch much of the day. The 58-year-old Seattle speech coach didn’t want to take opioid pain-killers, but Tylenol wasn’t helping enough. Roth was intrigued when women in her online chat group enthused about a cannabis-derived oil called cannabidiol (CBD) that they said relieved pain without making them high. So Roth, who hadn’t smoked weed since college but lived in a state where cannabis was legal, walked into a dispensary and bought a CBD tincture. “Within a few hours of placing the drops in my mouth, the malaise and achiness that had plagued me for weeks lifted and became much more manageable,” she says. She took the drops several times a day and in a few weeks was back to her regular life.
Had bilateral total knee replacements a year ago and been in pain since. Found out have 2 staph infections in one knee and a problem with tendon in the other. I will be going through 3 morw surgeries to correct these problems. This product has been a Godsend to me!! If it wasn’t for it, I could not walk the length of Walmart without being in pain. I will NEVER go without having this cream on hand, because I know how much relief it has given me. Even if my knees ever get fixed correctly, I will keep this on hand for any other pains I may get.
^ Nadulski T, Pragst F, Weinberg G, Roser P, Schnelle M, Fronk EM, Stadelmann AM (December 2005). "Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study about the effects of cannabidiol (CBD) on the pharmacokinetics of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) after oral application of THC verses standardized cannabis extract". Ther Drug Monit. 27 (6): 799–810. doi:10.1097/01.ftd.0000177223.19294.5c. PMID 16306858.
Ironically, the only four states where you can be absolutely sure that the CBD content claimed on the label is the CBD content in the bottle are Colorado, Washington, Oregon, and Alaska, where adult-use cannabis is legal and regulated. That’s because the CBD products available in licensed retail cannabis stores must pass state-mandated lab tests to assure their purity and potency. In fact, if these products haven’t gone through state testing, they’re liable to be seized, as happened recently in Alaska.
It is main ingredient of the product which plays an important role in the functioning of CBD Balm. Cannabidiol or CBD is the main component in the balm and this is an important component of cannabis plant. CBD is non-psychoactive and like its other counterpart THC, this component does not produce a ‘high’. There are many medical benefits of CBD and this is the reason that it has been legalized in almost 50 states in the US. Medical cannabis works on the endocannabinoid system in the body. It helps in assisting and regulating various kinds of functions including response to inflammation, relaxation, appetite, cognitive function of the brain etc.
CBD oil sourced from hemp is legal all across the U.S when sold as a dietary supplement. Our full-spectrum CBD oil products, when taken daily, add CBD, as well as essential vitamins, minerals, fatty acids, terpenes, flavonoids, and other trace cannabinoids, to your healthy diet. Try one of these healthy recipes for easily adding CBD into your meals.
In a study conducted by researchers from the Lautenberg Center, researchers discovered that CBD was more effective for treating inflammation and pain when used with other cannabis plant compounds derived from a full spectrum product over a CBD isolate product alone. This is one reason that full spectrum products (those containing THC) are popular.  
One of the most profound uses of cannabidiol oil is for the relief of arthritic pain. There are two kinds of arthritis, rheumatoid and osteoarthritis, both resulting in swelling and stiffness in joints.  Scientific studies have documented that the application of CBD oil can help assuage the pain caused by inflammations. Results have been encouraging. Health associations and the government, alike, are optimistic about the role of CBD oil in bringing solace to arthritic patients.
Utah Patients with epilepsy are allowed to possess cannabis extract given they have a recommendation from a neurologist. The extract must contain less than 0.3% THC and at least 15% CBD. Users must register with the Utah Department of Health. The extract must be obtained in a sealed container from a licensed lab. The extract must be clearly labeled and transmitted by the laboratory to the Utah Department of Health.
While there are more unknowns than knowns at this point, Grant says he doesn’t discount all the anecdotal CBD reports. “You hear somebody say, ‘Hey, I gave this to myself and my kid and we feel a lot better,’ and we should never dismiss that kind of information,” he says. He points out that many modern medicines were discovered when researchers followed up on exactly this sort of human trial-and-error evidence. “But we still need to do the studies that confirm whether all the good things are true, and how much to give, and how to give it,” he says. “These are all questions that need to be answered.”
Though use of marijuana among Washington state youth has remained relatively stable over the last several years (see Healthy Youth Survey), youth perception of harm from use of marijuana has been steadily decreasing (meaning: fewer adolescents believe marijuana use is harmful). Marijuana is the second most-commonly used substance among 12th graders (alcohol is the first), with 27% of high school seniors reporting current (past 30-day) use.

While many states have now passed laws legalizing the production of plants bearing Cannabidiol for medicinal use, these laws will take many months if not years to be implemented while the details are ironed out as to whom will produce the plants and products for distribution in each of these states. Many patients and families in the states that have enacted these CBD laws are frustrated that they currently have no way to access CBD, in most cases assuming that Cannabidiol has to be extracted from illicit Marijuana oil. It has also been frustrating for patients and families that still find themselves in states with neither Medical Marijuana programs that provide access to Marijuana oil nor Cannabidiol laws providing access to CBD.
The rosemary acts as a natural antioxidant preservative. It also supplies terpenoids, including camphene, pinene, and limonene, that support a healthy inflammatory response and promote relaxation.* Hops is a very close cousin of hemp and many of the compounds in hops are complementary to those in hemp. The hops in Hemp Oil + provides a source of the terpenoids humulon and lupulon that are synergistic with the phytocannabinoids in support of the ECS.*
Overall, Sativex appears to pose less risk of dependency than smoked cannabis based on its slower onset, lower dosage utilized in therapy, almost total absence of intoxication in regular usage, and minimal withdrawal symptomatology even after chronic administration. No known abuse or diversion incidents have been reported with Sativex to date (as of November 2007). Sativex is expected to be placed in Schedule IV of the Misuse of Drugs Act in the United Kingdom once approved.
Hashish (also spelled hasheesh, hashisha, or simply hash) is a concentrated resin cake or ball produced from pressed kief, the detached trichomes and fine material that falls off cannabis flowers and leaves.[178] or from scraping the resin from the surface of the plants and rolling it into balls. It varies in color from black to golden brown depending upon purity and variety of cultivar it was obtained from.[179] It can be consumed orally or smoked, and is also vaporised, or 'vaped'.[180] The term "rosin hash" refers to a high quality solventless product obtained through heat and pressure.[181]
^ Hayakawa K, Mishima K, Hazekawa M, Sano K, Irie K, Orito K, Egawa T, Kitamura Y, Uchida N, Nishimura R, Egashira N, Iwasaki K, Fujiwara M (January 2008). "Cannabidiol potentiates pharmacological effects of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol via CB(1) receptor-dependent mechanism". Brain Research. 1188: 157–64. doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2007.09.090. PMID 18021759. 

According to DSM-V criteria, 9% of those who are exposed to cannabis develop cannabis use disorder, compared to 20% for cocaine, 23% for alcohol and 68% for nicotine. Cannabis abuse disorder in the DSM-V involves a combination of DSM-IV criteria for cannabis abuse and dependence, plus the addition of craving, minus the criterion related to legal troubles.[116]


Information from adverse event reports regarding marijuana use is extremely limited; the FDA primarily receives adverse event reports for approved products. General information on the potential adverse effects of using marijuana and its constituents can come from clinical trials using marijuana that have been published, as well as from spontaneously reported adverse events sent to the FDA. Additional information about the safety and effectiveness of marijuana and its constituents is needed. Clinical trials of marijuana conducted under an IND application could collect this important information as a part of the drug development process.
A non-intoxicating cannabinoid found in cannabis. After tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD) is the second-most abundant cannabinoid in the plant, and has many potential therapeutic benefits, including anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-anxiety and seizure-suppressant properties. Cannabidiol can be sourced from both marijuana plants and hemp plants, which are legal in most countries as they contain minor amounts of THC.  
The author of a Harvard-led systematic review of 28 studies examining the efficacy of exo-cannabinoids (cannabinoids formed outside of the body, i.e. from the plant or synthetically made) to treat pain and other medical issues concluded, “the use of marijuana for chronic pain, neuropathic pain, and spasticity due to multiple sclerosis is supported by high-quality evidence.”

However, like we just mentioned CBD oil for pain management that has been sourced from industrial hemp grown under the farm bill is in fact legal to buy and sell. The best CBD oil brands that we cover here on this site, claim to extract their concentrates from U.S.-based industrial hemp supplies, which if true, are 100% legal since they contain negligible amounts of THC.
Industrial hemp contains, by weight, far less CBD than CBD-rich cultivars such as Harlequin or Sour Tsunami. This means that producing a single 10 mL dose of CBD would require the cultivation and extraction of far more hemp than it would from whole-plant marijuana; thus raising the risk of exposing users to more contaminants. Hemp is classified as a “bioaccumulator,” or a plant that naturally absorbs toxicants from the soil.
A barrister and 33-year career police officer with extensive experience in police leadership and reform in community, national and international policing.He was appointed Commissioner of the Northern TerritoryPolice, Fire and Emergency Services agency in 1988 and Serve in that position until 1994 when he was appointed Commissioner of the Australian Federal Police (AFP). Mr Palmer held this position for 7 years until his retirement in March 2001.
Our pick for Best Customer Experience is Populum, an Arizona-based CBD brand that offers complete product transparency and great deals for shoppers. Populum offers a full spectrum CBD oil in 250mg, 500mg, and 1000mg concentrations. The product is made with cold-pressed orange oil for a light citrus taste, as well as grapeseed and coconut oils for added flavors. Populum also offers a cooling topical salve that relaxes aching joints and muscles, as well as a pet oil for dogs and cats. Additionally, the CBD oil, topical salve, and pet oil are packaged in an inexpensive ‘Starter Kit’ designed for first-time users.
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Although global abnormalities in white matter and grey matter are not associated with cannabis abuse, reduced hippocampal volume is consistently found. Amygdalar abnormalities are sometimes reported, although findings are inconsistent.[111][112][113] Preliminary evidence suggests that this effect is largely mediated by THC, and that CBD may even have a protective effect.[114]
I’ve been wanting to know on how to understand the life cycle of a marijuana plant but I don’t know how to get started. I do research on my own, I also read lots of articles but this one caught my attention https://www.bonzaseeds.com/blog/life-cycle-marijuana-plant/ It has the content of all you about to know in planting and to understand the life cycle of marijuana plant.

Outside of those four states, consumers must put their trust in the manufacturer. Sometimes that’s warranted, and sometimes it’s not. In 2016 and 2016, the FDA ran tests on several CBD products and found that many of the products had far less CBD than advertised, and in some cases none at all. You can find those test results here for 2015, and here for 2016. (These FDA tests were done as a one-off project. CBD products are not approved by the FDA for the prevention, mitigation, or treatment of any disease or condition.)
It is important to note that the federal government still considers cannabis a dangerous drug and that the illegal distribution and sale of marijuana is a serious crime. Under the Controlled Substances Act (CSA), marijuana is still considered a Schedule 1 drug. Cultivation and distribution of marijuana are felonies; possession for personal use is a misdemeanor; possession of “paraphernalia” is also illegal. Cultivating 100 plants or more carries a mandatory minimum sentence of five years according to federal statutes.
Confusion about the difference between hemp and cannabis oil has spiked recently due to the increase of cannabis-based products available on the market. Variety is a great thing considering every individual requires different concentrations and delivery methods. If you are new to cannabis vape oils or products, it can be difficult to know what is what.
Before purchasing any CBD product in these states (aside from the 8 mentioned above) you must have a medical prescription issued by a certified medical doctor. Each state has a particular concentration of THC it allows to be present in a CBD product, with the percentage ranging from 0.3% — 8%. (See details in table 1.1 below). Even though the legal situation seems to be shifting in a positive direction, if you are in any of these states, it is very important to be aware of the state’s laws towards CBD.

Technically speaking, its THC—the cannabinoid that gets you high—which is illicit. When you take a drug test, the aim is to detect THC in your body, not “cannabis.” If you possessed weed without any THC in it, technically you wouldn’t be in violation of the law. Because “weed” without THC has a different name: hemp. And the rules governing hemp are quite different from the restrictions placed on cannabis.
This guide is an introduction to anyone looking to inform themselves about the reality of cannabis. It covers basic information about the marijuana plant, cannabis preparations, and the crucial elements of plant anatomy and science. This guide to marijuana also gives an overview of the most popular medical and recreational uses of cannabis. It offers a survey of the most important medical cannabis research while highlighting emerging trends in the legal cannabis market. The guide also introduces those new to cannabis to the many ways to consume marijuana, and much more.
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While it’s true that CBD is legal in all 50 states, there are situations when it isn’t legal. The difference between legal and illegal typically depends on several important factors determined by the state in question. There is, however, one very important factor that is a crucial determinant across all states, and that is where the CBD is derived from–hemp or marijuana.


PTSD. My husband suffers chronic PTSD from active military service. We live not far from a large Army base and though my husband served with another counties military we hear stories constantly of family breakdowns over PTSD. It’s not a easy path but I’m hoping one day to find something to stop the endless trips to the psych ward. It’s just not right that those who serve come home to no government help.
REM behavior disorder: REM behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia disorder characterized by shouting, becoming physically agitated, or otherwise acting out during sleep. For many, RBD is a symptom of a larger, more serious condition or disorder, such as Alzheimer’s disease or PTSD. CBD oil minimizes the symptoms of RBD, and also alleviates the anxiety and painful symptoms that often accompany disorders that lead to RBD.

As we continue to work with CBD our knowledge of the power of this plant is growing as well. We are obtaining much better results as we work with our patients to think themselves out of pain. You might think I’m kidding, but I’m not. Chronic pain changes the brain and lays down dysfunctional pathways. CBD promotes neuroplasticity and neurogenesis – the formation of new brain cells that develop into new pathways of thinking. We are encouraged and excited to continue to work with CBD to maximize its potential to address chronic pain.
The 2018 Farm Bill was signed into law in December 2018, effectively legalizing hemp at the federal level by removing it from the federal list of controlled substances and classifying it as an agricultural commodity. As a result, CBD from hemp is legal nationwide. The Hemp Farming Act, included in the 2018 Farm Bill, is considered the most important victory in the history of the hemp industry in the United States.
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CBD oil sourced from hemp is legal all across the U.S when sold as a dietary supplement. Our full-spectrum CBD oil products, when taken daily, add CBD, as well as essential vitamins, minerals, fatty acids, terpenes, flavonoids, and other trace cannabinoids, to your healthy diet. Try one of these healthy recipes for easily adding CBD into your meals.
Buying online is less reliable still because there’s no regulation or standardization. What you see on the label may not be what you are getting. A 2017 study in JAMA found that of the 84 CBD products researchers bought online, 43% had more CBD than indicated, while 26% had less, and some had unexpected THC. “There’s a 75% chance of getting a product where the CBD is mislabeled,” says Marcu, one of the study’s coauthors.
     A derivative of the industrial or commercial hemp plant, CBD Rich Hemp Oil is offering a great legal alternative for those living in non medical marijuana states that would like to try CBD oil but are still waiting for the laws to catch up in their part of the country, as well as folks just seeking highly concentrated sources of Cannabidiol in general.
Illinois and Chicago permit the retail sale of CBD products, as long as they are derived from hemp, another plant in the cannabis family, and have less than 0.3 percent of the psychoactive cannabis compound THC. If a firm discloses in its business license that it is selling CBD products, the city is making note of it in case additional regulations are adopted, Lilia Chacon, spokeswoman for the Department of Business Affairs and Consumer Protection, said in an email.
Cannabis is a generic term used to denote the several psychoactive preparations of the plant Cannabis sativa. The major psychoactive consituent in cannabis is ∆-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Compounds which are structurally similar to THC are referred to as cannabinoids. In addition, a number of recently identified compounds that differ structurally from cannabinoids nevertheless share many of their pharmacological properties. The Mexican term 'marijuana' is frequently used in referring to cannabis leaves or other crude plant material in many countries. The unpollinated female plants are called hashish. Cannabis oil (hashish oil) is a concentrate of cannabinoids obtained by solvent extraction of the crude plant material or of the resin.

Moreover, scientists at the Cajal Institute showed promising results in regards to CBD and Multiple Sclerosis. They used animal models and cell cultures to find that CBD reversed inflammatory responses; within only ten days, mice that were used in the study had superior motor skills and showed progression in their condition. To date, there have been well over 20,000 published scientific articles on cannabinoids and their related effects on all sorts of medical ailments.


Cannabis is an annual, dioecious, flowering herb. The leaves are palmately compound or digitate, with serrate leaflets.[11] The first pair of leaves usually have a single leaflet, the number gradually increasing up to a maximum of about thirteen leaflets per leaf (usually seven or nine), depending on variety and growing conditions. At the top of a flowering plant, this number again diminishes to a single leaflet per leaf. The lower leaf pairs usually occur in an opposite leaf arrangement and the upper leaf pairs in an alternate arrangement on the main stem of a mature plant.
Our products include foods that are prepared in a way that safeguards their nutritional value. The majority of these ingredients are grown locally on our certified organic farm and may require chopping, dicing, juicing and/or drying for use in our products. The resulting whole food ingredients are then added to a formula that may include whole food extracts, animal tissue extracts and concentrates, botanicals, whole food isolates and synthetic ingredients. These highly complex combinations contain a variety of elements designed to trigger trophic effects that support the body’s healthy balance and wellness.*
I have a slightly bulging disc in my back that has been causing neuropathy in my left leg for years. I’ve had several rounds of trigger point injections; see a physical therapist regularly, and lately a chiropractor as well. The next step for me would be to try an epidural pain block. Several of my other doctors are big proponents of the “inflammation as a cause of disease” theory and have really encouraged me to do things to reduce inflammation. Omega-3 fatty acids in particular help with this (as most Americans consume a poor ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 which can increase inflammation.) Hemp products contain phytocannabinoids, a substance that can help decrease pain and inflammation. This is full spectrum hemp oil derived from hemp seeds—meaning it contains all of the phytocannabinoids and not just one in particular. This is NOT CBD (cannabidiol) oil, although based on my research it likely contains low levels of CBD. CBD is the substance produced from hemp flowers (a plant with little to no THC—the substance that causes a high) (or marijuana flowers—a plant in the same family with significant THC) that is widely known to have medicinal purposes in pain relief, stopping seizures, etc.
CBD was first discovered in 1940 by Roger Adams, a prominent organic chemist at the University of Illinois. Shortly thereafter, other scientists began testing isolated cannabinoids on lab animals; notably, Walter S. Loewe ran trials on mice and rabbits with the cannabinoids THC, CBD and CBN. He found that CBD produced no observable effects in the animals’ behavior while THC caused, what he called, a “central excitant action” in rabbits. Despite science’s movement forward, scientists were completely unaware of the cannabinoids’ chemical structure, so no one could tell which specific compound resulted in which effect. 

Sativex® (GW Pharmaceuticals) is an oromucosal whole cannabis-based spray combining a CB1 partial agonist (THC) with a cannabinoid system modulator (CBD), minor cannabinoids and terpenoids plus ethanol and propylene glycol excipients and peppermint flavoring (McPartland and Russo 2001; Russo and Guy 2006). It was approved by Health Canada in June 2005 for prescription for central neuropathic pain in multiple sclerosis, and in August 2007, it was additionally approved for treatment of cancer pain unresponsive to optimized opioid therapy. Sativex is a highly standardized pharmaceutical product derived from two Cannabis sativa chemovars following Good Agricultural Practice (GAP) (de Meijer 2004), yielding Tetranabinex® (predominantly-THC extract) and Nabidiolex® (predominantly-CBD extract) in a 1:1 ratio. Each 100 μL pump-action oromucosal Sativex spray actuation provides 2.7 mg of THC and 2.5 mg of CBD. Pharmacokinetic data are available, and indicate plasma half lives of 85 minutes for THC, 130 minutes for 11-hydroxy-THC and 100 minutes for CBD (Guy and Robson 2003). Sativex effects commence in 15–40 minutes, an interval that permits symptomatic dose titration. A very favorable adverse event profile has been observed in over 2500 patient years of exposure in over 2000 experimental subjects. Patients most often ascertain an individual stable dosage within 7–10 days that provides therapeutic relief without unwanted psychotropic effects (often in the range of 8–10 sprays per day). In all RCTs, Sativex was adjunctively added to optimal drug regimens in subjects with intractable symptoms, those often termed “untreatable.” Sativex is also available by named patient prescription in the UK and the Catalonia region of Spain. An Investigational New Drug (IND) application to study Sativex in advanced clinical trials in the USA was approved by the FDA in January 2006 in patients with intractable cancer pain.
Martin Lee, co-founder of Project CBD, told Leafly that hemp fiber and seed contain no usable amounts of cannabinoids. “Cannabidiol can’t be pressed or extracted from hempseed,” he writes. “CBD can be extracted from the flower, leaves, and, only to a very minor extent, from the stalk of the hemp plant. Hemp oil start-ups lack credibility when they say their CBD comes from hempseed and stalk.”

Other “minor phytocannabinoids” in cannabis may also contribute relevant activity (McPartland and Russo 2001). Cannabichromene (CBC) is the third most prevalent cannabinoid in cannabis, and is also anti-inflammatory (Wirth et al 1980), and analgesic, if weaker than THC (Davis and Hatoum 1983). Cannabigerol (CBG) displays sub-micromolar affinity for CB1 and CB2 (Gauson et al 2007). It also exhibits GABA uptake inhibition to a greater extent than THC or CBD (Banerjee et al 1975), suggesting possible utilization as a muscle relaxant in spasticity. Furthermore, CBG has more potent analgesic, anti-erythema and lipooxygenase blocking activity than THC (Evans 1991), mechanisms that merit further investigation. It requires emphasis that drug stains of North American (ElSohly et al 2000; Mehmedic et al 2005), and European (King et al 2005) cannabis display relatively high concentrations of THC, but are virtually lacking in CBD or other phytocannabinoid content.

Other potential side effects include low blood pressure, lightheadedness, and drowsiness, but these have typically only occurred in patients who have exceeded doses of 1,500 mg daily for a period of 4 weeks or more; far more than the average person will need take on a daily basis for chronic pain symptoms. (In fact, the majority of CBD users claim they find an effective dose to be anywhere between 10 and 40 mg daily). 

I have a brother in law who has been diagnosed with cataplexy and narcoplexy, where he starts quivering and slowly loses control of his body and goes into a sleep, which causes him to drop to the ground with mild seizures while he is out. He lives alone (59 years old), but has smoked cannabis since he (we) were teenagers. He still smokes, and is on medication twice a day for this condition, but if he misses those meds by even half an hour, he is at risk of these seizures. The sad part is, these seizures are usually brought on by the smallest emotional change, usually tension, excitement or, the worst thing, if something he finds funny and is the least bit tickled about and starts to laugh, this process will immediately begin. Does anyone know if this kind of condition is treatable with cbd oil’s or concentrates? As I said, he smokes weed, and often grows his own, but he does it for the high and relaxation advantage, since he is basically home-bound due to this condition ending his work career about 4 years ago. Thanks for any replies. I’d be overjoyed if I could tell him there’s a possible solution to the problem other than his prescriptions. Or even if it worked WITH his meds to keep from having to live such a sedentary life.

There are thousands of unique varieties of hemp. The cultivars used for CBD oil contain significantly higher concentrations of CBD than others. Using these uniquely potent plants, it is possible to extract cannabis oil that contains significant levels of cannabidiol, as well as essential vitamins, minerals, fatty acids, terpenes, flavonoids, and other non-psychoactive cannabinoids.
Yes, companies that comply with the 2014 Farm Bill and its 2018 update can ship their products anywhere in the United States. The 2014 bill differentiates marijuana from industrial hemp and permits the cultivation of hemp within the United States, and the 2018 version reaffirms this distinction in more concrete terms that distinguish industrial hemp as an agricultural commodity.
Online retailers: Most CBD oils are sold through online retailers. These establishments tend to have the widest product range, and many offer free doorstep delivery. Online retailers also frequently post product reviews, allowing buyers to compare different oils based on customer experiences to determine which is best for them. These reviews can also be used to evaluate the retailer based on customer service, delivery, and product quality.
Cannabinoids may offer significant “side benefits” beyond analgesia. These include anti-emetic effects, well established with THC, but additionally demonstrated for CBD (Pertwee 2005), the ability of THC and CBD to produce apoptosis in malignant cells and inhibit cancer-induced angiogenesis (Kogan 2005; Ligresti et al 2006), as well as the neuroprotective antioxidant properties of the two substances (Hampson et al 1998), and improvements in symptomatic insomnia (Russo et al 2007).
There is a lot of excitement about hemp oil these days. There is also a lot of confusion. While many people have heard of hemp oil, they aren’t exactly sure what it does. Or whether or not it contains THC, the psychoactive ingredient in marijuana. Will hemp oil make you “high”? If you use a hemp oil supplement are you breaking any laws? The following are answers to some of the most frequently asked questions about hemp oil.
Working with farms in Northern Europe, we carefully tested and reviewed 3,000 cultivars to find the one that would thrive and produce the optimal ratio of cannabinoids necessary for our products. The oil sourced from these plants are high in CBD and low in THC, the cannabinoid that gets users high, making our extracted hemp oil products legal to purchase in the U.S.
One classic use is in soaps. Hemp oil is also used in paints and lubricants, and as a body care product. It may be rubbed directly onto the skin to treat cracked, dry skin, or it can be blended into body oils, body creams, and other personal care products. Some people also use it as a dietary supplement, taking advantage of the high concentrations of essential fatty acids in unrefined hemp oil and using the oil as a dressing or garnish to improve nutrition.
The cost of treatment varies: Depending on the dispensary and the dosage, it can range from around $100 a month to more than $1,000. Despite the cost, which is not covered by insurance, CBD medicines are drawing great interest for children with severe, intractable epilepsy. California and Colorado, which were among the first states to legalize medical marijuana, have become hot spots for such patients. Before other states legalized medicinal CBD use, some families moved to these states so they could have access to the compound.
Before the 1960s, many Americans had never heard of marijuana, but today it is a widely used illegal drug. It is usually smoked as a cigarette (typically called a "joint") or in a pipe or bong. Marijuana also appears in "blunts" (cigars that have been emptied of tobacco and refilled with marijuana) and "vapes," or electronic cigarettes (E-cigs). Marijuana cigarettes or blunts have come to sometimes include crack cocaine, a combination known by various street names like "primos" or "woolies." Joints and blunts are also sometimes dipped in PCP and called "happy sticks," "wicky sticks," "love boat," or "tical." Some users mix marijuana in food or use it to brew tea.
Furthermore, medical cannabis use is legal in many more places than recreational marijuana use. Current research, alongside patient and caregiver testimony, attests to the many medicinal applications of marijuana. From pain to serious neurological diseases, medical cannabis is emerging as a safe and viable alternative to many common prescription medications.
Usage amounts matter in this case. If, for instance, an individual was using an extremely high dose of CBD on a daily basis, 1,000 mg, for example, they would be exposed to around 3 mg of THC per day. A dose of this size could cause a result to be positive even if the user was not consuming traditional marijuana containing standard amounts of CBD and THC.
While most supplements have a single recommended dose, CBD is different. The amount of CBD you take depends on your doctor’s recommendations and your own research into how CBD will work for your unique needs. In general, it’s smart to start with a medium dose of CBD. This way, you can increase or decrease the dose as needed. In addition, it’s recommended to start with one half ML (half a dropper) of CBD oil, because you can always take more if needed.
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