As people age, they normally lose nerve cells in a region of the brain that is important for remembering events. Chronic exposure to THC may hasten the age-related loss of these nerve cells. In one study, researchers found that rats exposed to THC every day for eight months (about one-third of their life span) showed a loss of brain cells comparable to rats that were twice their age. It is not known whether a similar effect occurs in humans. Researchers are still learning about the many ways that marijuana could affect the brain.

The anti-inflammatory contributions of THC are also extensive, including inhibition of PGE-2 synthesis (Burstein et al 1973), decreased platelet aggregation (Schaefer et al 1979), and stimulation of lipooxygenase (Fimiani et al 1999). THC has twenty times the anti-inflammatory potency of aspirin and twice that of hydrocortisone (Evans 1991), but in contrast to all nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), demonstrates no cyclo-oxygenase (COX) inhibition at physiological concentrations (Stott et al 2005a).


You are likely very familiar with the dangers that prescription painkillers (and other pharmaceuticals) present. In fact, it’s estimated that the majority of CBD oil users attempt to switch to the all-natural therapy for the precise reason of kicking prescription med habits, which all too often cause an overwhelming array of irritability, sleep disruption, digestive complications, and even thoughts of suicide.
Years passed, and more studies rolled out with medically beneficial findings regarding cannabis until 2009 when Steep Hill Laboratory in Oakland, California, tested cannabis samples provided by Harborside Health Center to discover that a handful of cultivars contained more CBD than THC. This discovery kicked other labs into gear. They wanted to study medical cannabis to understand and potentially calibrate their cannabinoid ratios. Soon thereafter, laboratories uncovered CBD-dominant strains boasting 20:1 CBD to THC ratios, which opened up the cannabis market for a panoply of CBD products.
A study by Henquet and colleagues (2004) substantially replicated both the Swedish and Dutch studies in a 4-year follow-up of a cohort of 2437 adolescents and young adults between 1995 and 1999 in Munich. They found a dose–response relationship between self-reported cannabis use at baseline and the likelihood of reporting psychotic symptoms. As in the Dutch cohort, young people who reported psychotic symptoms at baseline were much more likely to experience psychotic symptoms at follow-up if they used cannabis than were cannabis-using peers without such a history.
Hemp CBD Oil is just another discovery of hemp’s uses that help improve daily life. For years, hemp products have been available for purchase. Shampoos, lotions, clothes, shoes, and more. These plants are even used for phytoremediation to reduce radiation levels from nuclear waste. For Earth, or for its inhabitants, hemp is healthy.Hemp CBD Oil is a healthy addition to increase the wellness of your life. Now, CBD oil can be used with food, drink, on your favorite snack, in lotions, tospicals, shampoos, vaporizers, and more by the year. If you asked mom and dad “Is CBD legal?” decades ago they would have said oh yea!
The glutamatergic system is integral to development and maintenance of neuropathic pain, and is responsible for generating secondary and tertiary hyperalgesia in migraine and fibromyalgia via NMDA mechanisms (Nicolodi et al 1998). Thus, it is important to note that cannabinoids presynaptically inhibit glutamate release (Shen et al 1996), THC produces 30%–40% reduction in NMDA responses, and THC is a neuroprotective antioxidant (Hampson et al 1998). Additionally, cannabinoids reduce hyperalgesia via inhibition of calcitonin gene-related peptide (Richardson et al 1998a). As for Substance P mechanisms, cannabinoids block capsaicin-induced hyperalgesia (Li et al 1999), and THC will do so at sub-psychoactive doses in experimental animals (Ko and Woods 1999). Among the noteworthy interactions with opiates and the endorphin/enkephalin system, THC has been shown to stimulate beta-endorphin production (Manzanares et al 1998), may allow opiate sparing in clinical application (Cichewicz et al 1999), prevents development of tolerance to and withdrawal from opiates (Cichewicz and Welch 2003), and rekindles opiate analgesia after a prior dosage has worn off (Cichewicz and McCarthy 2003). These are all promising attributes for an adjunctive agent in treatment of clinical chronic pain states.
Cannabis smoke contains thousands of organic and inorganic chemical compounds. This tar is chemically similar to that found in tobacco smoke,[92] and over fifty known carcinogens have been identified in cannabis smoke,[93] including; nitrosamines, reactive aldehydes, and polycylic hydrocarbons, including benz[a]pyrene.[94] Cannabis smoke is also inhaled more deeply than is tobacco smoke.[95] As of 2015, there is no consensus regarding whether cannabis smoking is associated with an increased risk of cancer.[96] Light and moderate use of cannabis is not believed to increase risk of lung or upper airway cancer. Evidence for causing these cancers is mixed concerning heavy, long-term use. In general there are far lower risks of pulmonary complications for regular cannabis smokers when compared with those of tobacco.[97] A 2015 review found an association between cannabis use and the development of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs), particularly non-seminoma TGCTs.[98] A 2015 analysis of six studies found little evidence that long-term or regular cannabis smoking was associated with lung cancer risk, though it could not rule out whether an association with heavy smoking exists.[99] Another 2015 meta-analysis found no association between lifetime cannabis use and risk of head or neck cancer.[100] Combustion products are not present when using a vaporizer, consuming THC in pill form, or consuming cannabis foods.[101]
As for phytocannabinoid-rich hemp oil, due to the presence of the hemp plant’s cannabinoids there are many additional uses and benefits with practically zero side effects. The most common use of this type of hemp oil is for chronic pain management, but many people also use it to treat some symptoms of cancer, among other diseases and conditions. Even the Food and Drug Administration recently approved a new CBD-based prescription medication.
Szaflarski explains that cannabis contains about 500 different compounds, some of which—including CBD and THC—interact with certain chemical receptors in the human nervous system. But unlike THC, CBD isn’t psychoactive—meaning it doesn’t cause any kind of a high. Despite that, the US Drug Enforcement Agency classifies CBD (and other cannabis compounds) as schedule I substances, making their sale illegal in many states.
In short, the results of the survey (which were published in the Journal of Pain Research) showed that roughly 42% and 46% (respectively) of participants claimed they were able to use cannabis in place of traditional medical to effectively treat their specific medical ailment. So if you’re wondering how to know if you need CBD for pain, remember that you’re certainly not alone. 

Even though, thanks to the Farm Bill, hemp lost its status as a Schedule I drug – one that has no proven medical purpose and potential for abuse – marijuana did not. That means even though many states have legalized its use, the federal government still considers marijuana and CBD products derived from marijuana in almost any form to be illegal. But so far, federal law enforcement officials have not used their power to swoop in and shut down marijuana operations in states that have legalized it.


So instead, go with an American company who has built up a good reputation of selling high-quality products. Every Day Optimal is by far one of the best in the business right now. They have amazing purification processes that take their quality to the next level. Furthermore, they only use medicinal hemp, which is the best grade possible! Their company has developed a unique structure which allows them to carry out quality checks at any given time. The CBD products they sell are also 100% legal to use.
Cannabidiol is insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents such as pentane. At room temperature, it is a colorless crystalline solid.[43] In strongly basic media and the presence of air, it is oxidized to a quinone.[44] Under acidic conditions it cyclizes to THC,[45] which also occurs during pyrolysis (smoking).[46] The synthesis of cannabidiol has been accomplished by several research groups.[47][48][49]
As a result of intensive selection in cultivation, Cannabis exhibits many sexual phenotypes that can be described in terms of the ratio of female to male flowers occurring in the individual, or typical in the cultivar.[28] Dioecious varieties are preferred for drug production, where the female flowers are used. Dioecious varieties are also preferred for textile fiber production, whereas monoecious varieties are preferred for pulp and paper production. It has been suggested that the presence of monoecy can be used to differentiate licit crops of monoecious hemp from illicit drug crops.[22] However, sativa strains often produce monoecious individuals, probably as a result of inbreeding.
In 1925, a compromise was made at an international conference in The Hague about the International Opium Convention that banned exportation of "Indian hemp" to countries that had prohibited its use, and requiring importing countries to issue certificates approving the importation and stating that the shipment was required "exclusively for medical or scientific purposes". It also required parties to "exercise an effective control of such a nature as to prevent the illicit international traffic in Indian hemp and especially in the resin".[210][211] In the United States in 1937, the Marihuana Tax Act was passed,[212] and prohibited the production of hemp in addition to cannabis.
CBD hemp oil has been proven in clinical trials to benefit humans and animals alike, as we both have endocannabinoid systems and are receptive to the chemical compound. Current studies also show that it is impossible to overdose on the substance. There is no need to worry if your dog takes a larger dose of CBD than anticipated – it is highly unlikely to have any negative effects, making it a safe and easy alternative treatment for your pet.
CBD is a 5-HT1A receptor agonist, which may also contribute to an anxiolytic effect.[155] This likely means the high concentrations of CBD found in Cannabis indica mitigate the anxiogenic effect of THC significantly.[155] The cannabis industry claims that sativa strains provide a more stimulating psychoactive high while indica strains are more sedating with a body high.[156] However this is disputed by researchers.[157]

Greetings, and sorry for our delayed response! Congrats on your new family member, and glad you found the article informative. Studies are not showing any negative side effects of CBD on pregnancy, but most studies focus on the effects of THC. More research is needed around CBD and pregnancy. We strongly recommend you consult your physician when taking any product when pregnant. Thanks so much!
Here’s a mind-blowing example: a study in 2014 found that people with THC in their systems were 80 percent less likely to die from traumatic head injuries than those without. THC is great for Insomnia “Indica” Recent research suggests it may also improve breathing while reducing sleep interruptions. Great news for those suffering from conditions such as sleep apnea! Fact, studies have confirmed that THC eases a variety of PTSD-related symptoms including agitation, depression, insomnia, flashbacks, and nightmares. Not only does the psychoactive protect brain cells, it also stimulates brain growth. Researchers have found that THC interacts with the same type of receptors in the hypothalamus that release the hormone ghrelin, which stimulates hunger. In fact, THC can even make food taste better. Interestingly, certain cannabis cultivars can also suppress appetite, which can be another advantage for a lot of people – weight loss. Enhances Senses! In 2008, researchers at MIT discovered that treating a concerning antibiotic-resistant pathogen with the psychoactive successfully killed the bacteria when other drugs could not even MRSA! As a potent antioxidant, one of the many health benefits of THC is protecting the body from stress-related damage. A known bronchodilator, studies conducted back in 1975 provided the first evidence of the cannabinoid’s ability to ease asthma attacks. While multiple cannabinoids show anti-cancer potential, THC is one of the main contenders! THC is a muscle relaxant on its own, the molecule’s ability to ease cramps and tension is a plus. THC also has anticonvulsant properties. Continuing 1 more time…
Drug tests are common in today’s world. For those with specific backgrounds that warrant drug tests, those in certain professions or interested in starting a new job, for participants in high school, college, or professional sports, or even other reasons, most of us will undergo a drug test at one point or another. Most of these tests are designed to screen for specific illegal drugs, prescriptions medications, and other compounds in the urine, hair, saliva or blood. Each of these tests can detect the presence of these substances depending on the length of time between use and testing, be it a few hours or a few weeks. For the purpose of this piece, we’ll focus on urine tests, the most common.
There are certainly CBD producers who source their hemp from cultivators that operate under the Farm Bill. But given how widespread these products are, it’s unlikely that all of them were sourced from research hemp. And state laws on CBD and hemp vary widely. Colorado, which legalized adult-use marijuana in 2012, has a robust industrial hemp program and is home to the first U.S.-bred certified hemp seed. But in Massachusetts, where you can now grow marijuana at home, it’s still a crime to grow hemp without a state license, reported The Boston Globe.
In states with medical cannabis laws, consumers should try to purchase cannabis from licensed suppliers who share their test results, which hopefully validate their products’ robust cannabinoid and terpenoid profiles. If you’re looking to purchase hemp through an online outlet, research your purchase beforehand to ensure that you aren’t being duped.
In September 2018, following its approval by the FDA for rare types of childhood epilepsy,[14] Epidiolex was rescheduled (by the Drug Enforcement Administration) as a Schedule V drug to allow for its prescription use.[15] This change applies only to FDA-approved products containing no more than 0.1 percent THC.[15] This allows GW Pharmaceuticals to sell Epidiolex, but it does not apply broadly and all other CBD-containing products remain Schedule I drugs.[15] Epidiolex still requires rescheduling in some states before it can be prescribed in those states.[66][67]

When formulating a CBD regimen for a specific disease or illness (like chronic or neurological pain), it’s important to understand that CBD should be used regularly for maximum relief. Meaning it should be used as a preventative first – it can also be used to manage acute flare ups, but the preventative maintenance is most important! Think about it like any other dietary supplement, you want to establish a baseline concentration in your system.


The leaves have a peculiar and diagnostic venation pattern that enables persons poorly familiar with the plant to distinguish a cannabis leaf from unrelated species that have confusingly similar leaves (see illustration). As is common in serrated leaves, each serration has a central vein extending to its tip. However, the serration vein originates from lower down the central vein of the leaflet, typically opposite to the position of, not the first notch down, but the next notch. This means that on its way from the midrib of the leaflet to the point of the serration, the vein serving the tip of the serration passes close by the intervening notch. Sometimes the vein will actually pass tangent to the notch, but often it will pass by at a small distance, and when that happens a spur vein (occasionally a pair of such spur veins) branches off and joins the leaf margin at the deepest point of the notch. This venation pattern varies slightly among varieties, but in general it enables one to tell Cannabis leaves from superficially similar leaves without difficulty and without special equipment. Tiny samples of Cannabis plants also can be identified with precision by microscopic examination of leaf cells and similar features, but that requires special expertise and equipment.[12]
We all know of Charlotte’s Web; the miracle strain that is packed with a high concentration of CBD. The Charlotte’s Web Cannabis Strain was named after Charlotte Figi, who suffers from Dravet syndrome and was experiencing several seizures daily until the Stanley Brothers came up with this powerful strain. Since then, Charlotte’s web has been morphed into various products, including their famous Charlotte’s Web CBD oil.

On May 22, 2003, Maryland became the ninth state to legalize the medical use of marijuana. Governor Robert L. Ehrlich, Jr. (R) signed a bill (which went into effect on October 1, 2003), that applies to defendants possessing less than one ounce of marijuana and who can prove they used marijuana out of medical necessity and with a doctor's recommendation.


Keep in mind that CBD levels may vary from crop to crop—even from plant to plant. However, below are some strains that have been bred to contain higher CBD levels, so they might be a good place to start. Check the map on their strain page to see if these are sold at a dispensary near you. We also recommend checking with dispensaries about the specifics of their strains’ CBD levels. It’s always a good idea to purchase only lab-tested products that clearly state the CBD/THC levels so you know what kind of experience to expect.
Other potential side effects include low blood pressure, lightheadedness, and drowsiness, but these have typically only occurred in patients who have exceeded doses of 1,500 mg daily for a period of 4 weeks or more; far more than the average person will need take on a daily basis for chronic pain symptoms. (In fact, the majority of CBD users claim they find an effective dose to be anywhere between 10 and 40 mg daily).
Marijuana.com informs, engages and grows the cannabis community through coverage of marijuana law + politics, science + medicine, consumer trends, culture and commentary. The site also offers a forum for discussion of current events and issues of interest. Marijuana.com has been in operation since 1995 and is owned and operated by Weedmaps.com, the most widely used medical and recreational marijuana dispensary locator in the industry.
Hashish (also spelled hasheesh, hashisha, or simply hash) is a concentrated resin cake or ball produced from pressed kief, the detached trichomes and fine material that falls off cannabis flowers and leaves.[178] or from scraping the resin from the surface of the plants and rolling it into balls. It varies in color from black to golden brown depending upon purity and variety of cultivar it was obtained from.[179] It can be consumed orally or smoked, and is also vaporised, or 'vaped'.[180] The term "rosin hash" refers to a high quality solventless product obtained through heat and pressure.[181]
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