In 1976, Canadian botanist Ernest Small[66] and American taxonomist Arthur Cronquist published a taxonomic revision that recognizes a single species of Cannabis with two subspecies: C. sativa L. subsp. sativa, and C. sativa L. subsp. indica (Lam.) Small & Cronq.[62] The authors hypothesized that the two subspecies diverged primarily as a result of human selection; C. sativa subsp. sativa was presumably selected for traits that enhance fiber or seed production, whereas C. sativa subsp. indica was primarily selected for drug production. Within these two subspecies, Small and Cronquist described C. sativa L. subsp. sativa var. spontanea Vav. as a wild or escaped variety of low-intoxicant Cannabis, and C. sativa subsp. indica var. kafiristanica (Vav.) Small & Cronq. as a wild or escaped variety of the high-intoxicant type. This classification was based on several factors including interfertility, chromosome uniformity, chemotype, and numerical analysis of phenotypic characters.[52][62][67]
Cannabis is known to aid relaxation, which makes it a popular treatment for social anxiety – however due to the THC content in cannabis, it can actually trigger more intense feelings of paranoia and anxiety. CBD on the other hand, has the opposite effect, helping to calm down the nerves and keep you grounded. Anxiety disorders and other feelings of irrational fear can be overwhelming especially if you find yourself in unfamiliar environments, however CBD can be used effectively to generate calmness and peacefulness, and without the addictive component of anti-anxiety medication like Benzos or Xanax.
Because our hemp oil products are categorized as dietary supplements in the United States, we comply with the FDA’s DSHEA guidelines and cannot endorse any specific medical benefits of CBD or our CBD oil. To further comply with FDA regulations, HempMeds® does not list a Recommended Daily Intake (RDI) of our own, nor do we provide a Daily Value (%DV) for any of our products. We encourage you to browse the thousands of reputable studies regarding CBD published online and talk with your doctor to see if a CBD oil supplement is right for you.
This article will attempt to present information concerning cannabinoid mechanisms of analgesia, review randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of available and emerging cannabinoid agents, and address the many thorny issues that have arisen with clinical usage of herbal cannabis itself (“medical marijuana”). An effort will be made to place the issues in context and suggest rational approaches that may mitigate concerns and indicate how standardized pharmaceutical cannabinoids may offer a welcome addition to the pharmacotherapeutic armamentarium in chronic pain treatment.
Cannabinoids can be agonists, inverse agonists or inhibitors. The agonists simply stimulate a bodily function once they adhere to their respective receptors. Inverse agonists associate themselves with the same receptors as agonists, while causing a chemical reaction opposite to the ones caused by agonists. Inhibitors simply stop a chemical reaction or response once bound to their receptors.
According to PeaceHealth, a website dedicated to providing information on an array of different supplements and medications, hemp oil can cause minor side effects in the digestive system. For example, the website suggests that hemp and hemp oil can soften the stools, often leading to diarrhea or abdominal cramping. Many times, excessive diarrhea can lead to increased weight loss or malabsorption. While further research is needed to substantiate these side effect claims, it is recommended that for individuals with a history of digestive disorders or irregular bowel movements to not take hemp oil supplements.

A. The FDA is aware that there are potential adverse health effects with use of marijuana in pregnant or lactating women. Published scientific literature reports potential adverse effects of marijuana use in pregnant women, including fetal growth restriction, low birth weight, preterm birth, small-for-gestational age, neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission, and stillbirth. [1, 2, 3] Based on published animal research, there are also concerns that use of marijuana during pregnancy may negatively impact fetal brain development.  [4, 5, 6 ] The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) recommends that women who are pregnant or contemplating pregnancy should be encouraged to discontinue marijuana use. In addition, ACOG notes that there are insufficient data to evaluate the effects of marijuana use on breastfed infants; therefore, marijuana use is discouraged when breastfeeding. [7] Pregnant and lactating women should talk with a health care provider about the potential adverse health effects of marijuana use.
In addition to the daily pain management program outlined above, many people find they still need a safe way to manage acute flare ups. Whether it’s caused by a recent injury, cold weather, or general aggravation  – we recommend vaporizing CBD isolate to combat these acute pain flare ups. The benefit of vaporizing or dabbing CBD isolate is that the relief can be felt almost instantaneously. CBD isolate is 99% pure CBD and provides a wave of relief that can be felt throughout the whole body.

There are also other difficulties in researching the effects of cannabis. Many people who smoke cannabis also smoke tobacco.[276] This causes confounding factors, where questions arise as to whether the tobacco, the cannabis, or both that have caused a cancer. Another difficulty researchers have is in recruiting people who smoke cannabis into studies. Because cannabis is an illegal drug in many countries, people may be reluctant to take part in research, and if they do agree to take part, they may not say how much cannabis they actually smoke.[277]
Cannabis is used in three main forms: marijuana, hashish and hash oil. Marijuana is made from dried flowers and leaves of the cannabis plant. It is the least potent of all the cannabis products and is usually smoked or made into edible products like cookies or brownies (see Factsheet: Marijuana Edibles). Hashish is made from the resin (a secreted gum) of the cannabis plant. It is dried and pressed into small blocks and smoked. It can also be added to food and eaten. Hash oil, the most potent cannabis product, is a thick oil obtained from hashish. It is also smoked.
It is often claimed by growers and breeders of herbal cannabis that advances in breeding and cultivation techniques have increased the potency of cannabis since the late 1960s and early '70s when THC was first discovered and understood. However, potent seedless cannabis such as "Thai sticks" were already available at that time. Sinsemilla (Spanish for "without seed") is the dried, seedless inflorescences of female cannabis plants. Because THC production drops off once pollination occurs, the male plants (which produce little THC themselves) are eliminated before they shed pollen to prevent pollination. Advanced cultivation techniques such as hydroponics, cloning, high-intensity artificial lighting, and the sea of green method are frequently employed as a response (in part) to prohibition enforcement efforts that make outdoor cultivation more risky. It is often cited that the average levels of THC in cannabis sold in the United States rose dramatically between the 1970s and 2000, but such statements are likely skewed because undue weight is given to much more expensive and potent, but less prevalent samples.[252]

^ Acj, Zondo (2017-08-02). "Minister of Justice and Constitutional Development and Others v Prince (Clarke, Stobbs and Thorpe Intervening) (Doctors of Life International Inc as Amicus Curiae); National Director of Public Prosecutions and Others v Rubin; National Director of Public Prosecutions and Others v Acton and Others". The Constitutional Court of South Africa.
Though clinical and anecdotal evidence suggests CBD’s benefits in managing different conditions, it became most famous for treating a rare and debilitating form of pediatric epilepsy. Dravet’s Syndrome is notoriously resistant to current approved treatment methods. Sufferers are plagued by seizures, often up to hundreds a day, that worsen as they age and can be life-threatening. Currently, treatment methods include having the child wear an eyepatch, specialized diets, and brain surgery, but all have mixed success rates.

What is cannabis?Cannabis is a drug that comes from Indian hemp plants such as Cannabis sativa and Cannabis indica. The main active chemical in cannabis is THC (delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol).Cannabis is a depressant drug. Depressant drugs do not necessarily make you feel depressed. Rather, they slow down the activity of the central nervous system and the messages going between the brain and the body. When large doses of cannabis are taken it may also produce hallucinogenic effects.For information on synthetic cannabinoids, see our "Legal high" facts page.Other namesCannabis is also known as grass, pot, hash, weed, reefer, dope, herb, mull, buddha, ganja, joint, stick, buckets, cones, skunk, hydro, yarndi, smoke and hooch.What does cannabis look like?Leaves from the cannabis plant are bright green and have a distinctive shape with five or seven leaflets. The flowering tops and upper leaves are covered in a sticky resin.Cannabis is used for the psychoactive (mind and mood-altering) effects of THC and other active ingredients. THC is the chemical in cannabis that makes you feel “high”.There are three main forms of psychoactive cannabis: marijuana, hashish and hash oil.Marijuana is the most common and least potent form of cannabis. Marijuana is the dried leaves and flowers of the plant.Hashish (“hash”) is dried cannabis resin, usually in the form of a small block. The concentration of THC in hashish is higher than in marijuana, producing stronger effects.Hash oil is a thick, oily liquid, golden brown to black in colour, which is extracted from cannabis. Hash oil is the strongest form of cannabis.How and why is it used?The different forms of cannabis are used in different ways:Marijuana is smoked in hand-rolled cigarettes (joints), or in a pipe (a bong).Hashish is usually added to tobacco and smoked, or baked and eaten in foods such as hash cookies.Hash oil is usually spread on the tip or paper of a cigarette and then smoked.Cannabis and hash can also be smoked in a vaporiser. Vaporisers heat cannabis to temperatures that release its active ingredients while minimising the toxins associated with burning.The THC in cannabis is absorbed into the bloodstream through the walls of the lungs (if smoked), or through the walls of the stomach and intestines (if eaten). The bloodstream carries the THC to the brain, producing the “high” effects. Drugs inhaled get into the bloodstream quicker than those eaten. This means that the effects of cannabis when smoked occur more rapidly than when eaten.Paper and textilesSome species of cannabis have few psychoactive effects. These plants are used to produce hemp fibre for use in paper, textiles and clothing.Medical usesCannabis has been used for medical purposes for many centuries. It has been reported that cannabis may be useful to help conditions such as:nausea and vomiting, particularly when associated with chemotherapywasting and severe weight loss, in people with HIV/AIDS, cancer, or anorexia nervosa, as it may be used as an appetite stimulantpain relief, for example in people with cancer and arthritisrelief from symptoms of some neurological disorders that involve muscle spasms, including multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injuryglaucomaepilepsyasthma.For more information, please click on the Australian Drug Foundation's DrugInfo Clearinghouse web site link below.


Do you have chronic pain in your back or in your joints? Are you tired of getting expensive prescriptions that don’t really treat the core problem? Try CBD Pain Cream for real natural pain relief. † This is a new development in CBD studies. Normally cannabidiol comes in oil form. Well, researchers have developed a topical pain relief cream from CBD oil that treats pain deep within your body. † This is clinically validated cannabidiol that is proven to reduce things like pain in joints and deep muscular tissue. If you want to get rid of pain the natural and safe way without harmful pharmaceuticals, welcome to the future. Try New CBD Pain Cream today and discover a pain-free life! †

We would never sacrifice quality by providing a synthetic CBD or CBD isolate blend. We use a whole plant extract that is rich in cannabinoids, terpenes, and other beneficial oils. The Hadassah Medical School at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem sought to compare the effectiveness of a completely purified CBD extract versus a full-spectrum extract of cannabis flowers containing large quantities of CBD. The conclusion of the study was that the whole plant extract, which contained a large percentage of CBD but also contained traces of the other cannabinoids, proved far more effective than CBD-only solutions in alleviating inflammation and pain sensation.
Of course, though, they offer less potent oils than that, with a product lineup that ranges from 300 mg CBD per bottle to 4,000 mg. Naturally the 4,000 mg option is the most expensive (this is the one that provides the “bomb” 60 mg dose), as it currently sells for $299. For long-term pain and anxiety relief, though, it may be well worth it if it is effective for you and helps replace your regular meds.
Mississippi Mississippi allows the use of cannabis extract,s like oil or resin that contains more than 15% CBD and less than 0.5% THC. It also provides affirmative defense for epilepsy patients using the oil to control their condition. CBD oil must be bought at or tested by the National Center for Natural Products Research at the University of Mississippi and dispensed by the Department of Pharmacy Services at the University of Mississippi Medical Center.
So. According to the Controlled Substance Act definition itself, certain parts of the cannabis plant are clearly illegal, while others fall into a grayer area. One of these – for the most part – is CBD extracted from the “legal” parts of the cannabis plant, and non-marijuana industrial hemp plants, which, as defined by Section 7606 of the Farm Bill are cannabis plants with less than 0.3 percent THC.

Inhibited liver function: The liver regulates the way different drugs are metabolized within the body; this process is known as hepatic drug metabolism. Higher-than-average doses of CBD oil can slow the hepatic drug metabolism process. As a result, users may not be able to process other drugs as quickly. This is particularly concerning for CBD oil users who also take prescription medications.
CBD’s action within the brain and body is quite complicated. To date, scientists have discovered more than a dozen different mechanisms of action, or ways that CBD affect us. It’s very likely that the beneficial effects of CBD are a result of the total of its activation of all of these biological pathways, not a single one in particular. Much more research is needed to fully understand the mechanisms by which CBD relieves ailments such as anxiety and seizures.
“Twenty-one of those doctors are based in New South Wales, and there are two in Queensland. All of these doctors are paediatric neurologists. They are authorised specifically to prescribe to children with neurological conditions. That means patients with other conditions, for example terminal cancer, cannot access medical cannabis through these authorised prescribers.”
The results of the three large European cohort studies have been confirmed in two smaller New Zealand birth cohorts. Arsenault and colleagues (2002) reported a prospective study of the relationship between adolescent cannabis use and psychosis in a New Zealand birth cohort (n = 759). They found a relationship between cannabis use by age 15 and an increased risk of psychotic symptoms by age 26. The relationship did not change when they controlled for other drug use, but it was no longer statistically significant after adjusting for psychotic symptoms at age 11. The latter probably reflected the small number of psychotic disorders observed in the sample. Fergusson et al. (2003) found a relationship between cannabis dependence at age 18 and later symptoms that included those in the psychotic spectrum reported at age 21 in the Christchurch birth cohort. Fergusson and colleagues adjusted for a large number of potential confounding variables, including self-reported psychotic symptoms at the previous assessment, other drug use and other psychiatric disorders, but whether the association represents a link between cannabis use and psychotic symptoms specifically, or more general psychiatric morbidity, remains unclear.
These mounting developments in the elicited a problem amongst cannabis cultivators across the US: decades of selectively breeding cannabis to achieve the maximum amount of THC for a strong high reduced the overall preponderance of CBD in cultivars across the country to trace lows. Essentially, CBD had been selectively bred out of existence across the country.

There is very little risk of intoxication from hemp oil as all forms of hemp oil come from food-grain strains of hemp. The authors of a study in the journal Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research note that food-grain strains of hemp must contain less than 0.3 percent tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). THC is the compound that causes the so-called "high" of marijuana.
Cannabis has been around for thousands of years and is believed to have originated in South or Central Asia. The two main species of cannabis are Cannabis sativa and Cannabis indica. Both Cannabis sativa and indica contain varying amounts of psychoactive and nonpsychoactive components. Cannabis sativa is more commonly known for its stimulatory, mental effects while Cannabis indica is more known for its relaxing, body-calming effects.

The human body also produces cannabinoids, known as endocannabinoids, in a bodily system known as the endocannabinoid system (or ECS). The ECS promotes homeostasis by regulating a wide range of functions, including motor skills, mood, appetite, and sleep. As we age, our ECS produces fewer endocannabinoids; they may also decrease due to physical injury or disease. Replenishing depleted endocannabinoids with phytocannabinoids like CBD can help restore balance to the body.


Cannabis is mostly used for recreation or as a medicinal drug, although it may also be used for spiritual purposes. In 2013, between 128 and 232 million people used cannabis (2.7% to 4.9% of the global population between the ages of 15 and 65).[28] It is the most commonly used illegal drug both in the world and the United States.[21][28] The countries with the highest use among adults as of 2018 are Zambia, the United States, Canada, and Nigeria.[29] In 2016, 51% of people in the United States had ever used cannabis.[30] About 12% had used it in the past year, and 7.3% had used it in the past month.[31]


Journal Media does not control and is not responsible for user created content, posts, comments, submissions or preferences. Users are reminded that they are fully responsible for their own created content and their own posts, comments and submissions and fully and effectively warrant and indemnify Journal Media in relation to such content and their ability to make such content, posts, comments and submissions available. Journal Media does not control and is not responsible for the content of external websites.
The leaves have a peculiar and diagnostic venation pattern that enables persons poorly familiar with the plant to distinguish a cannabis leaf from unrelated species that have confusingly similar leaves (see illustration). As is common in serrated leaves, each serration has a central vein extending to its tip. However, the serration vein originates from lower down the central vein of the leaflet, typically opposite to the position of, not the first notch down, but the next notch. This means that on its way from the midrib of the leaflet to the point of the serration, the vein serving the tip of the serration passes close by the intervening notch. Sometimes the vein will actually pass tangent to the notch, but often it will pass by at a small distance, and when that happens a spur vein (occasionally a pair of such spur veins) branches off and joins the leaf margin at the deepest point of the notch. This venation pattern varies slightly among varieties, but in general it enables one to tell Cannabis leaves from superficially similar leaves without difficulty and without special equipment. Tiny samples of Cannabis plants also can be identified with precision by microscopic examination of leaf cells and similar features, but that requires special expertise and equipment.[12]
Acute effects may include anxiety and panic, impaired attention and memory, an increased risk of psychotic symptoms, [b] the inability to think clearly, and an increased risk of accidents.[68][69][70] Cannabis impaired a person's driving ability, and THC was the drug most frequently found in the blood of drivers who have been involved in vehicle crashes. Those with THC in their system were from three to seven times more likely to be the cause of the accident than those who had not used either cannabis or alcohol, although its role is not necessarily causal because THC stays in the bloodstream for days to weeks after intoxication.[71][72][c]

Until recently, medical science knew very little about the endocannabinoid system and how CBD and THC attach themselves to brain receptors to carry out their effects in the body. There are at least two receptors that interact with cannabis compounds to generate the effects we’ve gotten used to. THC attaches to CB1 receptors to generate the euphoric feeling that marijuana is known for, and CBD, which contains no psychoactive ingredient, attaches to CB2 receptors, and among other things, it counteracts the effects of CB1 receptors and assists the body in managing pain.

Until very recently, the most convincing evidence that cannabis use precipitates schizophrenia came from a 15-year prospective study of cannabis use and schizophrenia in 50 465 Swedish conscripts (Andreasson et al., 1987). This study investigated the relationship between self-reported cannabis use at age 18 and the risk of being diagnosed with schizophrenia in the Swedish psychiatric case register during the next 15 years. Andreasson and colleagues found a dose–response relationship between the risk of schizophrenia and the number of times cannabis had been used by age 18 (1.3 times higher for those who had used cannabis 1–10 times, 3 times higher for those who had used cannabis 1–50 times, and 6 times higher for those who had used cannabis more than 50 times). These risks were reduced after statistical adjustment for potentially confounding variables (a psychiatric diagnosis at age 18, and parental divorce), but the relationships remained statistically significant.
Phytocannabinoids are the herbal, natural and classical cannabinoids found in the cannabis plant. The glandular structure called the trichomes is where the concentrated viscous resin of the plant is found. There are over 60 cannabinoids that have been isolated from the plant. Tetrahydracannabinol (THC), Cannabidiol (CBD) and Cannabinol (CBN) are the most prevalent ones and have also been the most studied. Cannabidiol (CBD) accounts for up to 40% of the plant’s extract. It has been widely reported that CBD offers the greatest possible benefits of any of the extracts found in the plant. CBD can also be derived from hemp. Hemp and cannabis both contain large amounts of natural CBD, but hemp is naturally low in THC; thus, making it easier for manufacturers to create high CBD-infused products with low to non-existent THC levels. Since THC is (mostly) still illegal in the United States, most CBD items we carry are derived from hemp. Each CBD product varies in the amount of CBD and THC levels found in the product. No items we carry are over the legal limit of THC levels, which is 0.3%, according to U.S. Federal Law.
So instead, go with an American company who has built up a good reputation of selling high-quality products. Every Day Optimal is by far one of the best in the business right now. They have amazing purification processes that take their quality to the next level. Furthermore, they only use medicinal hemp, which is the best grade possible! Their company has developed a unique structure which allows them to carry out quality checks at any given time. The CBD products they sell are also 100% legal to use.
Regarding marijuana use in children, parents should be aware of changes in a child's behavior, although this may be difficult with teenagers. Parents should look for withdrawal, depression, fatigue, carelessness with grooming, hostility, and deteriorating relationships with family members and friends. In addition, changes in academic performance, increased absenteeism or truancy, lost interest in sports or other favorite activities, and changes in eating or sleeping habits could be related to drug use. However, these signs may also indicate problems other than use of drugs.
While very few clinical trials have explored the pain-relieving effects of CBD oil, a report published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews in 2018 examined the use of a variety of cannabis-based medicines and found they might be of some benefit in the treatment of chronic neuropathic pain. A type of pain triggered by damage to the somatosensory system (i.e., the system responsible for processing sensory stimuli), neuropathic pain often occurs in people with conditions like diabetes and multiple sclerosis.
Medical marijuana in the U.S. is controlled at the state level. Per federal law, cannabis is illegal as noted in the Controlled Substances Act, but the federal government has stated they will not actively prosecute patients and caregivers complying with state medical marijuana laws. However, use of medical marijuana outside of the state laws for illegal use or trafficking will not be tolerated by state or federal government.
Outside of the aforementioned studies, CBD’s progress toward its place in society today suffered from intermittent spurts and starts until 1996 when California became the first US state to legalize medical cannabis. This groundbreaking moment paved the way for public support and lucrative research opportunities. Other states including Oregon, Alaska, Washington, Maine, Hawaii, Nevada, and Colorado would follow suit before the close of 2000.
The link provides additional information that may be useful or interesting and has no aliation to the promotion, sale and distribution of Medical Marijuana Inc. products. The link does not constitute an endorsement of these organizations by Medical Marijuana Inc. and none should be inferred. Please view our full Terms Of Use Agreement for more information and the terms and conditions governing your use of this site.
Colorado's first and oldest medical cannabis law is a citizens’ initiative called Amendment 20 that amends the state constitution to authorize patients to possess and use medical cannabis and to be assisted by a caregiver. Colorado's second medical cannabis law, the Colorado Medical Marijuana Code (C.R.S. 12-43.3-101 et seq.), was enacted by the legislature in the summer of 2010 to establish a dual licensing mechanism that regulates medical cannabis business at both the state and local level.
Cannabidiol (CBD) is a naturally-occurring constituent of industrial hemp (cannabis sativa) plants. It is the most abundant non-psychoactive cannabinoid found in cannabis and is being scientifically investigated for numerous reasons. Most people have heard of a cannabinoid called THC, which is the ingredient in cannabis that gets users high. Unlike THC, CBD (cannabidiol) is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid and does not cause a high. 

Medicinal claims are those which attribute to food the property of preventing, treating or curing a human disease. It is not permitted to make a medicinal claim about food. Therefore claims such as ‘treats seizures’, ‘cures cancer’, ‘lowers anxiety’ or ‘anti-inflammatory’ must not be made on the label of a food, verbally or on associated marketing material such as websites, social media, leaflets, etc.
According to researchers, 25 percent of all cancer patients use medical marijuana. Cancer patients are finding relief from medical cannabis. And they want to know more about it. Research conducted at St. George’s University of London, found the two most common cannabinoids in marijuana, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), weakened the ferocity of cancer cells and made them more susceptible to radiation treatment. Other studies have shown that medical marijuana treatments can slow the growth of cancer cells and halt their spread to other parts of the body.
In 1924, Russian botanist D.E. Janichevsky concluded that ruderal Cannabis in central Russia is either a variety of C. sativa or a separate species, and proposed C. sativa L. var. ruderalis Janisch, and Cannabis ruderalis Janisch, as alternative names.[48] In 1929, renowned plant explorer Nikolai Vavilov assigned wild or feral populations of Cannabis in Afghanistan to C. indica Lam. var. kafiristanica Vav., and ruderal populations in Europe to C. sativa L. var. spontanea Vav.[53][62] In 1940, Russian botanists Serebriakova and Sizov proposed a complex classification in which they also recognized C. sativa and C. indica as separate species. Within C. sativa they recognized two subspecies: C. sativa L. subsp. culta Serebr. (consisting of cultivated plants), and C. sativa L. subsp. spontanea (Vav.) Serebr. (consisting of wild or feral plants). Serebriakova and Sizov split the two C. sativa subspecies into 13 varieties, including four distinct groups within subspecies culta. However, they did not divide C. indica into subspecies or varieties.[48][64]
×