But he wasn’t finished. In February of 1980, Dr. Mechoulam teamed up with South American researchers to publish a study regarding cannabis and epilepsy. This study is seen as one of the earliest double-blind studies of CBD on clinical subjects. The study Dr. Mechoulam and his team conducted included 16 people, many of whom were children, who all suffered from severe epilepsy. The results were startling: Every subject who received CBD experienced improvement in their condition with little to no side effects. This anticonvulsant study has since proven to be an integral milestone in the world of clinical marijuana research, but largely went unnoticed at the time.
Tried CBD at what the seller told me was the highest level sold by the company. It was a local company as I live in a state where Marijuana is legal. I have never used marijuana & can’t afford it, also I am still prescribed a limited amount of prescription pain medication. Have recently been reduced to half of what I’ve taken for 15 years. The CBD oil was $230.00 for an ounce & I live on a very limited income. It’s not a realistic expense for me. I also couldn’t tell that it helped with my pain or anxiety levels. It was worth trying though. Had been curious for some time.
So, here’s the difference: CBD products that are made from “cannabis” strains are confined to states where marijuana is legal because they may contain high percentage levels of THC. CBD products that are made from “hemp” strains are legal in ALL fifty states as long as they contain less than 0.3% of THC. Essentially, hemp and cannabis are very similar, but their main difference is their cannabinoid profiles.
The exploding recreational market for marijuana has rapidly popularized many methods of consuming cannabis that was decidedly part of the fringe just a few short years ago. Smoking marijuana remains the most widely embraced method, due to the greater accessibility of marijuana flower. But legal recreational cannabis is introducing many marijuana users to new forms of the drug, especially concentrates and edibles. Here’s a brief overview of the major methods for consuming marijuana.
Amendment 64 granted Colorado citizens the use and regulation of marijuana. Passed on November 6, 2012, it included a declaration industrial hemp should be regulated separately from marijuana and that the Colorado General Assembly is “to enact legislation governing the cultivation, processing, and sale of industrial hemp.” Soon after Amendment 64 went into effect, Colorado became the first state to contain certified hemp seed – designated as containing less than .3% THC – as well as free of weeds and disease.
Another concern is about medications with which CBD might interact. This won’t be an issue with most drugs, says Sunil Kumar Aggarwal, M.D., Ph.D., a palliative medicine physician and scientist who studies cannabis and integrates it into his Seattle medical practice. The exceptions are blood thinners, IV antibiotics, and other drugs whose exact dosing is crucial and must be monitored closely, he says. (Of course, if you have a health problem, talk to your doctor before using CBD, and never take it instead of seeing your physician for a serious condition.)
However, like we just mentioned CBD oil for pain management that has been sourced from industrial hemp grown under the farm bill is in fact legal to buy and sell. The best CBD oil brands that we cover here on this site, claim to extract their concentrates from U.S.-based industrial hemp supplies, which if true, are 100% legal since they contain negligible amounts of THC.
Years passed, and more studies rolled out with medically beneficial findings regarding cannabis until 2009 when Steep Hill Laboratory in Oakland, California, tested cannabis samples provided by Harborside Health Center to discover that a handful of cultivars contained more CBD than THC. This discovery kicked other labs into gear. They wanted to study medical cannabis to understand and potentially calibrate their cannabinoid ratios. Soon thereafter, laboratories uncovered CBD-dominant strains boasting 20:1 CBD to THC ratios, which opened up the cannabis market for a panoply of CBD products.
Unlike other CBD oils, PureKana really does excel in CBD oil extractions due to their unique CO2 extraction process which provides a near 99% pure CBD oil. PureKana Natural CBD Oil is an unflavored, dietary and nutritional supplement for increased health and vitality. It is extremely effective in treating chronic pain, inflammation, swelling, anxiety and sleep disorders.
The use of cannabis for pain relief dates back to ancient China, according to a report published in the journal Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research. It’s thought that CBD oil might help ease chronic pain in part by reducing inflammation. In addition, CBD oil is said to promote sounder sleep and, in turn, treat sleep disruption commonly experienced by people with chronic pain.
Although hemp and marijuana are essentially different cultivars of the same plant – Cannabis sativa L – marijuana has been cultivated to concentrate high levels of THC (frequently as much as 18%), in the plant’s flowering tops, whereas hemp, which is primarily grown in Europe to make clothing, paper, biofuels, bioplastics, nutritional supplements, cosmetics, and foods, contains less than 0.3% THC.
More recent studies have focused on the mechanisms behind the schizophrenia–cannabis interaction. Epstein and Kumra (2014) tested the effect of cannabis on executive control of attention and cognitive function by comparing scores on the Attention Network Test among people with early-onset schizophrenia (EOS) and cannabis use disorder, only EOS, only cannabis use disorder, and controls. They found that the first group in particular had less efficient executive control of attention compared with those who had only EOS. They also found a smaller right caudal anterior cingulate cortex in subjects with EOS and cannabis use disorder. However, it is presently unclear whether this means that the smaller cortex surface leads to deficits in self-regulation and heavy cannabis use or if the direction of causation is in the opposite direction. More recent studies have suggested gene–environment correlation between cannabis use and schizophrenia in that the increased risk of schizophrenia after heavy and consistent cannabis use may be moderated by a shared gene that may explain part of the association (Power et al., 2014).
While medical marijuana is grown to be high in CBD for the treatment of specific ailments, the THC content can vary dramatically, sometimes getting as high as the CBD content. For an excellent example of the types of marijuana you may find in a licensed dispensary, see this Strain Book. It shows you the types of plants, the percentages of CBD and THC, and even the taste and effects of the stain.
The Gateway Hypothesis states that cannabis use increases the probability of trying "harder" drugs. The hypothesis has been hotly debated as it is regarded by some as the primary rationale for the United States prohibition on cannabis use. A Pew Research Center poll found that political opposition to marijuana use was significantly associated with concerns about health effects and whether legalization would increase marijuana use by children.
I was arrested and charged with a FELONY in Saratoga, WY on Sept 2017 for possession of CBD hemp oil ‘THC liquid’ by a banjo playing member of the Hitler youth named Robert The Bifano. The state’s crime lab found a “presence” of THC and even violated state statutes by weighing the glass bottle! Due to atrocious legal counsel–Steven Titus of Gillette, WY whom I found on the NORML site–out of duress from threats to my physical safety while incarcerated and Titus warning that I couldn’t “trust” twelve “moronic motherfu@#%s in Carbon County” in a jury trial and that “You’ll go to prison,” I accepted a terrible alford plea that turned me into a felon for life under 3 years of supervised probation. I was also charged with a second bogus felony for good measure. Stay out of Wyoming folks–the state where Matthew Shepard was beaten to death and strung up on a fence and left to die like a dog by two Neanderthals– especially steer clear of the towns of Rawlins and Saratoga and along Interstate 80—-the ‘ju$tice’ sy$tem in Carbon County is corrupt. “Vacation in Wyoming–Leave on Probation.”
Cannabidiol, a non-euphoriant phytocannabinoid common in certain strains, shares neuroprotective effects with THC, inhibits glutamate neurotoxicity, and displays antioxidant activity greater than ascorbic acid (vitamin C) or tocopherol (vitamin E) (Hampson et al 1998). While THC has no activity at vanilloid receptors, CBD, like AEA, is a TRPV1 agonist that inhibits fatty acid amidohydrolase (FAAH), AEA’s hydrolytic enzyme, and also weakly inhibits AEA reuptake (Bisogno et al 2001). These activities reinforce the conception of CBD as an endocannabinoid modulator, the first clinically available (Russo and Guy 2006). CBD additionally affects THC function by inhibiting first pass hepatic metabolism to the possibly more psychoactive 11-hydroxy-THC, prolonging its half-life, and reducing associated intoxication, panic, anxiety and tachycardia (Russo and Guy 2006). Additionally, CBD is able to inhibit tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in its own right in a rodent model of rheumatoid arthritis (Malfait et al 2000). At a time when great concern is accruing in relation to NSAIDs in relation to COX-1 inhibition (gastrointestinal ulcers and bleeding) and COX-2 inhibition (myocardial infarction and cerebrovascular accidents), CBD, like THC, inhibits neither enzyme at pharmacologically relevant doses (Stott et al 2005a). A new explanation of inflammatory and analgesic effects of CBD has recently come to light with the discovery that it is able to promote signaling of the adenosine receptor A2A by inhibiting the adenosine transporter (Carrier et al 2006).
Choosing CBD products isn’t as simple as picking something off the dispensary shelf and then walking out the door. Consumers should be aware that a handful of hemp products on the market pay lip service to governmental regulations by labeling themselves as hemp, despite containing cannabinoids and terpenoids. Some CBD products are completely devoid of cannabinoids including CBD, despite package labeling. The FDA purchased a number of CBD products online in 2015 and 2016 to test them for the presence of CBD and other cannabinoids. They found that the amount of CBD these products claimed on their labels was markedly inaccurate; some didn’t even contain CBD.
Cannabis use started to become popular in the United States in the 1970s. Support for legalization has increased in the United States and several U.S. states have legalized recreational or medical use. A 2018 Social Science Research study found that the main determinants of such changes in attitudes toward marijuana regulation since the 1990s were changes in media framing of marijuana, a decline in perception of the riskiness of marijuana, a decline in overall punitiveness, and a decrease in religious affiliation. 
In 1988, the first cannabinoid receptor was identified (CB1) (Howlett et al 1988) and in 1993, a second was described (CB2) (Munro et al 1993). Both are 7-domain G-protein coupled receptors affecting cyclic-AMP, but CB1 is more pervasive throughout the body, with particular predilection to nociceptive areas of the central nervous system and spinal cord (Herkenham et al 1990; Hohmann et al 1999), as well as the peripheral nervous system (Fox et al 2001; Dogrul et al 2003) wherein synergy of activity between peripheral and central cannabinoid receptor function has been demonstrated (Dogrul et al 2003). CB2, while commonly reported as confined to lymphoid and immune tissues, is also proving to be an important mediator for suppressing both pain and inflammatory processes (Mackie 2006). Following the description of cannabinoid receptors, endogenous ligands for these were discovered: anandamide (arachidonylethanolamide, AEA) in 1992 in porcine brain (Devane et al 1992), and 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) in 1995 in canine gut tissue (Mechoulam et al 1995) (Figure 1). These endocannabinoids both act as retrograde messengers on G-protein coupled receptors, are synthesized on demand, and are especially active on glutamatergic and GABA-ergic synapses. Together, the cannabinoid receptors, their endogenous ligands (“endocannabinoids”) and metabolizing enzymes comprise the endocannabinoid system (ECS) (Di Marzo et al 1998), whose functions have been prosaically termed to be “relax, eat, sleep, forget and protect” (p. 528). The endocannabinoid system parallels and interacts at many points with the other major endogenous pain control systems: endorphin/enkephalin, vanilloid/transient receptor potential (TRPV), and inflammatory. Interestingly, our first knowledge of each pain system has derived from investigation of natural origin analgesic plants, respectively: cannabis (Cannabis sativa, C. indica) (THC, CBD and others), opium poppy (Papaver somniferun) (morphine, codeine), chile peppers (eg, Capsicum annuum, C. frutescens, C. chinense) (capsaicin) and willow bark (Salix spp.) (salicylic acid, leading to acetylsalicylic acid, or aspirin). Interestingly, THC along with AEA and 2-AG, are all partial agonists at the CB1 receptor. Notably, no endocannabinoid has ever been administered to humans, possibly due to issues of patentability and lack of commercial feasibility (Raphael Mechoulam, pers comm 2007). For an excellent comprehensive review of the endocannabinoid system, see Pacher et al (2006), while Walker and Huang have provided a key review of antinociceptive effects of cannabinoids in models of acute and persistent pain (Walker and Huang 2002).
The other 29 states that fully legalize the Medical use of all CBD products derived from either hemp or Marijuana are: Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Hawaii, Illinois, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Dakota, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, Washington and West Virginia. The territories of Guam and Puerto Rico also allow the use of CBD products on medical grounds.
As people age, they normally lose nerve cells in a region of the brain that is important for remembering events. Chronic exposure to THC may hasten the age-related loss of these nerve cells. In one study, researchers found that rats exposed to THC every day for eight months (about one-third of their life span) showed a loss of brain cells comparable to rats that were twice their age. It is not known whether a similar effect occurs in humans. Researchers are still learning about the many ways that marijuana could affect the brain.
Whatever the reason behind the confusion stirred up by Mr. Curtis Hill in the November of 2017, it seems we can finally put it in the back burner. People who were using this as a health regiment for various ailments (especially the epileptic ones) shall continue to use it as a remedy. It is because there is no need to worry about any law restricting it.
Cannabis, a drug prepared from the plant Cannabis sativa (including marijuana, resin, and “skunk”), is used widely throughout the world and is especially popular in North America, Western Europe, West and Central Africa, and Oceania (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 2009). Several studies within the past decade have investigated the effect of continuous use of cannabis on psychotic illnesses, specifically schizophrenia. Zammit, Allebeck, Andreasson, Lundberg, and Lewis (2002) in Sweden found that those who smoked cannabis had a twofold increased risk of developing schizophrenia within 15 years. In addition, the researchers also found a dose–response relationship; subjects who used cannabis more heavily (over 50 reported occasions) were six times as likely to develop schizophrenia compared to those who did not use cannabis at all.
Bought this for my girlfriend as she has shoulder pain from playing bass for about 10 years. This gives her instant relief and a nice cooling sensation to keep the pain at bay. In our experience with it we will say that it has a very strong scent (Almost menthol/eucalyptus like) and is very powerful so depending on the person you may only need a small application of it. Overall though this is a great pain relieving product without the Big Pharma ingredients. Definitely worth a try or to have on hand for those aches and pains that we all get at some point.
Cannabidiol has been found to act as an antagonist of GPR55, a G protein-coupled receptor and putative cannabinoid receptor that is expressed in the caudate nucleus and putamen in the brain. It has also been found to act as an inverse agonist of GPR3, GPR6, and GPR12. Although currently classified as orphan receptors, these receptors are most closely related phylogenetically to the cannabinoid receptors. In addition to orphan receptors, CBD has been shown to act as a serotonin 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist, and this action may be involved in its antidepressant, anxiolytic, and neuroprotective effects. It is an allosteric modulator of the μ- and δ-opioid receptors as well. The pharmacological effects of CBD have additionally been attributed to PPARγ agonism and intracellular calcium release.
We use a combination of both Subcritical and Supercritical extractions. This allows us to perform a “fractional extraction” by first extracting at lower pressures to remove the lighter, temperature-sensitive volatile oils, and then subsequently extracting the same material at a higher pressure to remove the remaining oils. This approach is the best because it allows us to extract a complete range of cannabinoids, terpenes, essential oils, and other beneficial phytochemicals that yield a more potent blend.
Cannabis is frequently used among Sufis – the mystical interpretation of Islam that exerts strong influence over local Muslim practices in Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Turkey, and Pakistan. Cannabis preparations are frequently used at Sufi festivals in those countries. Pakistan's Shrine of Lal Shahbaz Qalandar in Sindh province is particularly renowned for the widespread use of cannabis at the shrine's celebrations, especially its annual Urs festival and Thursday evening dhamaal sessions - or meditative dancing sessions.
Leafly is the world’s largest cannabis information resource, empowering people in legal cannabis markets to learn about the right products for their lifestyle and wellness needs. Our team of cannabis professionals collectively share years of experience in all corners of the market, from growing and retail, to science and medicine, to data and technology.
Some studies state that while there is no proof for the gateway hypothesis, young cannabis users should still be considered as a risk group for intervention programs. Other findings indicate that hard drug users are likely to be poly-drug users, and that interventions must address the use of multiple drugs instead of a single hard drug. Almost two-thirds of the poly drug users in the "2009/10 Scottish Crime and Justice Survey" used cannabis.
My husband considers CBD essential to his treatment plan. He suffers from TBI caused by HSE, dystonia (right side, plus neck and face), ankylosing spondylitis, spinal bone spurs and nerve impingement, CFS/ME, lifelong insomnia, and plain old arthritis; he’s convinced that CBD has been the key for being able to reduce (with the goal of eventually eliminating) his Klonopin as quickly as he has, and for managing the reduction of his pain script.