Cannabinoid agonists produce many effects beyond those mediated directly on receptors, including anti-inflammatory effects and interactions with various other neurotransmitter systems (previously reviewed (Russo 2006a). Briefly stated, THC effects in serotonergic systems are widespread, including its ability to decrease 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) release from platelets (Volfe et al 1985), increase its cerebral production and decrease synaptosomal uptake (Spadone 1991). THC may affect many mechanisms of the trigeminovascular system in migraine (Akerman et al 2003; Akerman et al 2004; Akerman et al 2007; Russo 1998; Russo 2001). Dopaminergic blocking actions of THC (Müller-Vahl et al 1999) may also contribute to analgesic benefits.
Cannabis made another leap forward in 1964 when Israeli scientist Dr. Raphael Mechoulam identified the structure of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC. This discovery earned him godfather status of modern cannabis. This particular discovery allowed science to understand THC’s nature as a psychoactive compound in cannabis as well as CBD’s non-intoxicating but vastly therapeutic benefits.
Some studies state that while there is no proof for the gateway hypothesis,[263] young cannabis users should still be considered as a risk group for intervention programs.[264] Other findings indicate that hard drug users are likely to be poly-drug users, and that interventions must address the use of multiple drugs instead of a single hard drug.[265] Almost two-thirds of the poly drug users in the "2009/10 Scottish Crime and Justice Survey" used cannabis.[266]

Sleep is an extremely important aspect of life. It is the time our bodies and brains rejuvenate ourselves and prepare us for the next day. Without good quality sleep, the toll on our bodies and mental capacities really adds up. But CBD helps with sleep. On average, our patients’ sleep duration grew from 4 ½ to 6 hours, and they reported that the quality of sleep was significantly improved. Patients even told us that they started remembering dreams, which was a surprise for them. Given the amount of medications these patients take, it’s no wonder many of them had not dreamed in years. 

California’s legalization spurred Dr. Geoffrey Guy and Dr. Brian Whittle to found GW Pharmaceuticals, a company that would utilize clinical trials to unpack various cannabinoid formulations as potential therapies with the overriding focus of developing what would later be known as Sativex (Nabiximols). This oral mucosal spray was made up of CBD and THC in a 1:1 ratio and successfully combated neuropathic pain, spasticity, overactive bladder, and symptoms of multiple sclerosis.

CBD e-liquids are made for vaporizers or electronic cigarettes. Usually, hemp extract or pure CBD is mixed with a classic e-liquid base called PG/VG. The e-liquids are then inserted into a cartridge or atomizer for an electronic cigarette. You may see the CBD vape oil used interchangeably with CBD e-liquids, so keep that in mind and don’t vape your regular CBD-rich oil unless you want a not so enjoyable experience.
Cost is another consideration. Most CBD oils are sold in concentrations of 300 to 750 mg, although this may range from less than 100 mg to more than 2,000. A good indicator of price-point is the cost per milligram. Low-cost CBD oils usually fall between five and 10 cents per mg; mid-range prices are 11 to 15 cents per mg; and higher-end oils cost 16 cents per mg or higher. Given these varying per-milligram costs, a bottle of CBD oil may be priced anywhere from $10 or less to $150 or more.
Put simply, “indica” strains are those associated with a strong body-high, feelings of sedation and relaxation. For this reason, indicas are often thought of as the “heavier” strains of cannabis, offering stronger highs that impact the whole body. They’re popular among marijuana users as pain relieving and sleep-inducing strains. Indicas are especially popular among medical cannabis patients.

In 1925, a compromise was made at an international conference in The Hague about the International Opium Convention that banned exportation of "Indian hemp" to countries that had prohibited its use, and requiring importing countries to issue certificates approving the importation and stating that the shipment was required "exclusively for medical or scientific purposes". It also required parties to "exercise an effective control of such a nature as to prevent the illicit international traffic in Indian hemp and especially in the resin".[210][211] In the United States in 1937, the Marihuana Tax Act was passed,[212] and prohibited the production of hemp in addition to cannabis.


Cannabidiol (CBD) is a subclass of Phytocannabinoids and one among one twenty cannabis compounds. It is hailed for its ability to be meditative, without causing a euphoric high. This non-addictive miracle cannabinoid has been the talk of the town and the core of numerous experiments. The anti-inflammatory properties of CBD have inspired the marketing of its by-products, such as CBD oil, for pain relief and relaxation.


Reality: Hemp oil is an increasingly popular product, used for an expanding variety of purposes. The washed hemp seed contains no THC at all. The tiny amounts of THC contained in industrial hemp are in the glands of the plant itself. Sometimes, in the manufacturing process, some THC- and CBD-containing resin sticks to the seed, resulting in traces of THC in the oil that is produced. The concentration of these cannabinoids in the oil is infinitesimal. No one can get high from using hemp oil.
In 2015, The Hebrew University of Israel published a study that documented the potency of single-molecule CBD extract versus the potency of whole-plant CBD-rich extract. It found that extract taken from whole plant CBD-rich cannabis is therapeutically superior to single-molecule extract. The scientists behind this study noticed that science had been utilizing pure, single-molecule CBD, which resulted in a bell-shaped dose-response curve. This means that CBD’s efficacy plummets at very high and very low doses.
Indoor marijuana grows provide the most control over growing conditions. With a simple setup including a tent, proper lighting, and an air circulation system, home marijuana growers can produce consistent yields. Both soil and hydro systems can be utilized for indoor marijuana grows. Soil setups are generally cheaper and more forgiving, but hydro systems tend to be more common.
A 2015 meta analysis found that, although a longer period of abstinence was associated with smaller magnitudes of impairment, both retrospective and prospective memory were impaired in cannabis users. The authors concluded that some, but not all, of the deficits associated with cannabis use were reversible.[120] A 2012 meta analyses found that deficits in most domains of cognition persisted beyond the acute period of intoxication, but was not evident in studies where subjects were abstinent for more than 25 days.[121] Few high quality studies have been performed on the long-term effects of cannabis on cognition, and results were generally inconsistent.[122] Furthermore, effect sizes of significant findings were generally small.[121] One review concluded that, although most cognitive faculties were unimpaired by cannabis use, residual deficits occurred in executive functions.[123] Impairments in executive functioning are most consistently found in older populations, which may reflect heavier cannabis exposure, or developmental effects associated with adolescent cannabis use.[124] One review found three prospective cohort studies that examined the relationship between self reported cannabis use and intelligence quotient (IQ). The study following the largest number of heavy cannabis users reported that IQ declined between ages 7–13 and age 38. Poorer school performance and increased incidence of leaving school early were both associated with cannabis use, although a causal relationship was not established.[116] Cannabis users demonstrated increased activity in task-related brain regions, consistent with reduced processing efficiency.[125]

In 2001, the Drug Enforcement Administration aimed to change that by attempting to ban people and companies from importing and selling food products containing hemp seed and oil. The Hemp Industries Association responded to this block by successfully suing the DEA, arguing that hemp oil is primarily consumed as a nutritional culinary oil and used in body care products — not to get people high — and therefore, should be allowed.
Plant, (kingdom Plantae), any multicellular eukaryotic life-form characterized by (1) photosynthetic nutrition (a characteristic possessed by all plants except some parasitic plants and underground orchids), in which chemical energy is produced from water, minerals, and carbon dioxide with the aid of pigments and the radiant energy of the Sun, (2)…
CBD is not addictive. ‘An addiction to marijuana can develop as a severe form of "marijuana use disorder" which affects an estimated 30 per cent of marijuana users,' says Dr Brewer. 'This develops from a dependence on the psychoactive ingredient, THC, which is found in marijuana strains of cannabis, and which can cause a high and withdrawal symptoms.’
Even though hemp contains virtually no THC, the answer to the question, “Is hemp oil legal?” is not that simple. As of 2019, CBD derived from hemp is legal nationwide. This includes all hemp-derived CBD products like oils, edibles, and ointments. However, marijuana-derived CBD does not enjoy the same privileges as hemp. In some states, CBD derived from marijuana is completely legal; but in most states, its legality depends on a number of different factors and conditions.

You are likely very familiar with the dangers that prescription painkillers (and other pharmaceuticals) present. In fact, it’s estimated that the majority of CBD oil users attempt to switch to the all-natural therapy for the precise reason of kicking prescription med habits, which all too often cause an overwhelming array of irritability, sleep disruption, digestive complications, and even thoughts of suicide.
It's important to know that although THC and CBD are the most studied components of cannabis, there are many more chemical compounds found within the plant, such as cannabigerol (CBG), cannabichromene (CBC), cannabidivarin (CBDV), tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), terpenes, and flavonoids. While there is still much to learn about these other chemicals, researchers in Israel have discovered that whole-plant cannabis extracts that contain these other chemicals are more beneficial than isolated extracts that contain just CBD or THC.
One of the earliest success stories involves a young girl named Charlotte who was given an ingestible oil derived from Charlotte’s Web, a CBD strain that was specifically developed to provide her with all the benefits of the drug without the high. In less than two years, Charlotte went from a monthly seizure count of 1,200 to about three. Other success stories followed and more parents have begun to speak out, particularly parents who are desperate for access to this life-saving treatment.

The problem with US people is we think more is better. Not the case with CBD oil. The recommended dose is the size of a few pieces of rice ( put into an empty capsule to ingest. It taste terrible. Many commercial CBD products are mixed with olive oils and other oils. All not regulated therefore dosing is precarious. Swear by the use of CBD oil and although not covered by Insurance (yet) the benefits are so worth the cost. I do realize cost is a major problem for many but most states have compassionate dosing available through the dispensaries and state. In California if you get compassionate product one must register with the State and lose their 2nd Ammendment rights, to own guns. They have nothing to do with each other and it is BS so I pay for my own and skip the registration process. No ones business if I use CBD oil. I find for me a ratio of about 15:1 is perfect.


The effects of marijuana on each person depend on the type of cannabis and how much THC it contains, the way the drug is taken (by smoking or eating), the experience and expectations of the user, the setting where the drug is used, and whether alcohol or other drugs are also being used. Some people feel nothing at all when they first try marijuana; others may feel high (intoxicated and/or euphoric).
The legality of CBD in the US varies from state to state, but at the federal level, CBD is mysteriously classified as a Schedule I drug despite its sourcing. According to the federal government, Schedule I drugs are substances or chemicals with no currently accepted medical use and a high potential for abuse. Other Schedule I drugs include heroin, LSD, marijuana, and ecstasy. However, CBD can be purchased as a dietary supplement throughout the country despite the FDA’s official stance that CBD isn’t a supplement. The landscape of CBD legality in the US is exactly as confusing as it reads; that squirrely, perplexing itch at the back of your brain is cognitive dissonance, and it’s an entirely normal reaction.

Lisa Hamilton, a jeweler and doula in Brooklyn, NY, knows about the side effects. She recently tried CBD for the shoulder pain that plagued her five years after an accident. Her doctor certified that she was in chronic pain, which under New York State law allowed her to buy from a state dispensary. One Friday, she swallowed two 10-mg capsules, the amount recommended at the dispensary, then took another two on Saturday. “By Sunday, it felt like I’d gotten hit by a truck. Every muscle and joint ached,” Hamilton says. She cut back to one pill a day the following week, but still felt hungover. She stopped after that.


A 2015 review found that the use of high CBD-to-THC strains of cannabis showed significantly fewer positive symptoms such as delusions and hallucinations, better cognitive function and both lower risk for developing psychosis, as well as a later age of onset of the illness, compared to cannabis with low CBD-to-THC ratios.[278] A 2014 Cochrane review found that research was insufficient to determine the safety and efficacy to using cannabis to treat schizophrenia or psychosis.[279] As of 2017, the molecular mechanisms for the anti-inflammatory and possible pain relieving effects of cannabis are under preliminary research.[280]
One of the main benefits of using CBD for pain relief is the fact that it doesn’t cause the same dependency that people get from using pharmaceutical pain medication. People have been looking into alternative pain medication for a long time – in fact plant-based treatments such as turmeric and frankincense have been used for a long time as natural therapies for pain. Cannabidiol is one such treatment that has a long history as a pain medication. Only recently the medical sector has acknowledged its use as a legitimate treatment for a variety of ailments including chronic pain.
Nature’s Script offers a wide range of CBD oil products. Tinctures are available in 30mL containers and 300mg, 600mg, 1000mg, 2,000mg, and 4,000mg concentrations. These products come in watermelon or peppermint flavors. Nature’s Script recommends a beginning dose of 5mg to 10mg per day, and to gradually increase the dose until the desired effects are reached. Nature’s Script also sells CBD capsules and vape juice, as well as gummies and mixing syrup for those who enjoy edibles and a pain-relief topical sold in one- and four-ounce containers. These products do not contain any THC and pose no risk for drug test takers.
Then, there’s HIA v. DEA – a lawsuit by a hemp trade association that challenges the agency’s classification of CBD as a Schedule I substance. Federal judges at the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals heard oral arguments in the case earlier this year. Clearly, attorneys representing hemp businesses have a different interpretation of federal law than the DEA.
Zatural: Our Premium hemp oil drops, which contain full spectrum hemp oil, is great for assisting with general pain, inflammation, and anxiety. For legal reasons Zatural cannot make any claims that our products can cure or treat any type of medical diagnosis. Our Premium hemp oil also contains hemp seed oil, which is rich in omegas. You may find studies online that talk about how omegas can help cholesterol and blood pressure.

An alternative to the gateway hypothesis is the common liability to addiction (CLA) theory. It states that some individuals are, for various reasons, willing to try multiple recreational substances. The "gateway" drugs are merely those that are (usually) available at an earlier age than the harder drugs. Researchers have noted in an extensive review that it is dangerous to present the sequence of events described in gateway "theory" in causative terms as this hinders both research and intervention.[270]


More recently, Sakamoto and various co-authors[35][36] have used RAPD to isolate several genetic marker sequences that they name Male-Associated DNA in Cannabis (MADC), and which they interpret as indirect evidence of a male chromosome. Several other research groups have reported identification of male-associated markers using RAPD and AFLP.[37][25][38] Ainsworth commented on these findings, stating,

Under the Controlled Substances Act – passed by Congress and enforced by the DEA – the mature stalk of a cannabis plant can be used legally (we will dive into this shortly) – which means CBD extracted from the stalk is also legal. Meanwhile, the 2014 Farm Bill allows states to pass laws relating to the extraction of CBD and other compounds from the hemp plant – specifically the industrial hemp plant – while also allowing industrial hemp to be legally imported from other countries. The FDA’s role in marijuana and CBD marketing and labeling has added additional complexity to the situation. Because many manufacturers attempt to market THC and CBD-containing products as dietary supplements, they violate the FD&C Act sections 201 (ff)(3)(B)(i) and (ii). Clinical investigations are currently needed to promote a product as a dietary supplement unless the supplement was publicly available before the Act was passed. The FDA, however, claims to believe in the validity of scientific research furthering the introduction of these substances for medical purposes and has approved the first CBD-containing epilepsy drug just this year. So…what’s the official word? Which details you should familiarize yourself with? Where should you start?
While research into the effects of CBD on specific conditions is important, a broader perspective on the relationship between CBD and the human body is necessary to understand how this unique compound works. Interestingly, many of the conditions that are supposedly helped by CBD have no well-understood cause, from acne to Alzheimer’s disease. However, one of the few common denominators between these conditions is the involvement of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in their causes.
In making the two previous determinations about THC, why did FDA conclude that THC is an active ingredient in a drug product that has been approved under section 505 of the FD&C Act? In making the two previous determinations about CBD, why did FDA determine that substantial clinical investigations have been authorized for and/or instituted, and that the existence of such investigations has been made public?
Given the opioid crisis, physicians are less likely to lead with narcotics, and some of us are deciding not to prescribe them altogether. The problem with narcotics is that they work. They work really well. Sometimes too well, leading to a patient becoming so comfortable they “forget” to breathe. So, while reducing the amount of narcotics prescribed to patients is a good thing, the problem is physicians don’t have a lot of good alternatives to recommend to their patients, until now.
The results of the three large European cohort studies have been confirmed in two smaller New Zealand birth cohorts. Arsenault and colleagues (2002) reported a prospective study of the relationship between adolescent cannabis use and psychosis in a New Zealand birth cohort (n = 759). They found a relationship between cannabis use by age 15 and an increased risk of psychotic symptoms by age 26. The relationship did not change when they controlled for other drug use, but it was no longer statistically significant after adjusting for psychotic symptoms at age 11. The latter probably reflected the small number of psychotic disorders observed in the sample. Fergusson et al. (2003) found a relationship between cannabis dependence at age 18 and later symptoms that included those in the psychotic spectrum reported at age 21 in the Christchurch birth cohort. Fergusson and colleagues adjusted for a large number of potential confounding variables, including self-reported psychotic symptoms at the previous assessment, other drug use and other psychiatric disorders, but whether the association represents a link between cannabis use and psychotic symptoms specifically, or more general psychiatric morbidity, remains unclear.
Nature’s Script offers a wide range of CBD oil products. Tinctures are available in 30mL containers and 300mg, 600mg, 1000mg, 2,000mg, and 4,000mg concentrations. These products come in watermelon or peppermint flavors. Nature’s Script recommends a beginning dose of 5mg to 10mg per day, and to gradually increase the dose until the desired effects are reached. Nature’s Script also sells CBD capsules and vape juice, as well as gummies and mixing syrup for those who enjoy edibles and a pain-relief topical sold in one- and four-ounce containers. These products do not contain any THC and pose no risk for drug test takers.
Great pain relief, better than several other products we’ve tried. Aloe Vera, Arnica and Tea Tree are great additional ingredients but PLEAS GET RID OF THE FD&C Blue 1FC & Yellow 10 (food dye), Methylparaben & Alcohol. You took a great product and ruined it with these ingredients that have negative effects on our health (dye & paraben) or just smell bad and have a drying effect on the skin (alcohol). Please go back to the lab and improve the formulation to make this truly a great product that I’d continue to use and highly recommend to all.
So, your ECS signals to your brain that you’re in pain. And, when your condition is chronic, it’s a constant stream of signals to your brain about the pain. What CBD Pain Cream does is binds to those receptors that are signaling the pain to your brain. † And, it calms that reaction to help erase the pain. So, in other words, CBD Chiro-Cream actually stops the pain, rather than suppressing it like most pain killers. † And, the fact that CBD Pain Cream works with your body means it’s better and healthier for you. All you have to do is apply it topically to the areas that hurt you and you’ll see a reduction in pain fast.
Hemp goes back as one of the oldest crops in human history. Why is it so popular? For starters, it requires half the water (even less for some crops!)  of wheat and can be grown without pesticides. For health enthusiasts or anyone generally considerate of the environment, this is a great news. This crop can then be used for nutrition as a great fiber source! The whole seeds are healthy for complete proteins and omegas, concentrated antioxidants, vitamins, and other healthy nutrients. Outside of the United States, hemp is grown as an industrial crop on a large scale. In Europe, for example, we reviewed over 3,000 cultivars before selecting the right farm for us. 
Refined hempseed oil is clear and colorless, with little flavor and lacks natural vitamins and antioxidants. Refined hempseed oil is primarily used in body care products. Industrial hempseed oil is used in lubricants, paints, inks, fuel, and plastics. Hempseed oil is used in the production of soaps, shampoos and detergents. The oil has a 3:1 ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 essential fatty acids.[3] It may also be used as a feedstock for the large-scale production of biodiesel.[4]

CBD oil alleviates physical pain and anxiety – both of which can have a negative impact on sleep. Additionally, CBD oil can actually prolong sleep for some, leading to more rest from night to night. Most medical experts agree that marijuana is not particularly beneficial for individuals with medical conditions and/or mental health disorders, as the THC can increase their symptoms; this makes CBD oil a good alternative option for people with the following sleep disorders and medical conditions.
people don’t use CBD for recreational use. it has little to no THC so has no psychoactive properties. many CBD products processed from hemp also do not have enough CBD to affect any medical disorders either. they are just jumping on the trendy CBD bandwagon, like many other so-called “nutritional supplements”. so it is very difficult to find and trust the CBD processed form hemp. useful CBD from hemp can only be processed from the flowers, which is still illegal, even though no THC. the only legal use of hemp in the states is for “industrial” use, only the stalks and seeds (fiber and oil). the stalks and seeds of hemp are so lacking in usable CBD that it is not legitimate for medical use.

CBD was first discovered in 1940 by Roger Adams, a prominent organic chemist at the University of Illinois. Shortly thereafter, other scientists began testing isolated cannabinoids on lab animals; notably, Walter S. Loewe ran trials on mice and rabbits with the cannabinoids THC, CBD and CBN. He found that CBD produced no observable effects in the animals’ behavior while THC caused, what he called, a “central excitant action” in rabbits. Despite science’s movement forward, scientists were completely unaware of the cannabinoids’ chemical structure, so no one could tell which specific compound resulted in which effect.
Extensive studies have demonstrated that many common illnesses are related to deficiencies or imbalances of specific fatty acids in the body. Symptoms are often related to a lack of Omega 3 and Omega 6 fatty acids and their derivatives, the postaglandins. Most people eating a healthful diet, one that includes a balanced ratio of essential fatty acids, also have healthy skin and a strong immune system. Yet some individuals may experience shortages in specific fatty acids or their metabolites due to dysfunctional enzyme systems or other inhibitions in their metabolic pathways caused by genetic, immune-system-related, or even environmental factors. It has been proven in several clinical studies that dietary supplementation with essential fatty acids or their metabolites (such as GLA) will often prevent or even cure these illnesses. Since hemp seed oil contains both essential fatty acids in a desirable balance while also providing two of the essential fatty acid metabolites, it is a good resource for the prevention and treatment of certain illnesses.
A: Mamun, Our Full spectrum CBD oil is great for assisting with pain, inflammation, sleep, anxiety and stress. Depending on the severity of the pain you are experiencing you will want to choose an oil that is stronger or weaker. 5x strength is the strongest option we have available. https://zatural.com/products/cannabis-sativa-hemp-oil-drops?variant=14337796210730
Cannabis made another leap forward in 1964 when Israeli scientist Dr. Raphael Mechoulam identified the structure of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC. This discovery earned him godfather status of modern cannabis. This particular discovery allowed science to understand THC’s nature as a psychoactive compound in cannabis as well as CBD’s non-intoxicating but vastly therapeutic benefits.

2104 saw very limited growing of domestic Hemp, as new programs were set up and established, but 2015 and 16 saw a sizable increase in production as many hemp farmers in Colorado, Oregon, Kentucky and Tennessee rolled out production under various state hemp programs. Unfair Marijuana laws should not restrict the growth of Hemp in the U.S, which has a long and proud relationship with Hemp, until it was criminalized along with cannabis by definition of the term Marijuana which came to encompass both illicit Marijuana as well as benign Hemp plants under U.S. law.
Some immediate undesired side effects include a decrease in short-term memory, dry mouth, impaired motor skills and reddening of the eyes.[49] Aside from a subjective change in perception and mood, the most common short-term physical and neurological effects include increased heart rate, increased appetite and consumption of food, lowered blood pressure, impairment of short-term and working memory,[50][51] psychomotor coordination, and concentration.
In the United States, non-FDA approved CBD products are classified as Schedule I drugs under the Controlled Substances Act.[63] This means that production, distribution, and possession of non-FDA approved CBD products is illegal under federal law. In addition, in 2016 the Drug Enforcement Administration added "marijuana extracts" to the list of Schedule I drugs, which it defined as "an extract containing one or more cannabinoids that has been derived from any plant of the genus Cannabis, other than the separated resin (whether crude or purified) obtained from the plant."[64] Previously, CBD had simply been considered "marijuana", which is a Schedule I drug.[63][65]

Armentano pointed to several pieces of evidence as proof that CBD has always been treated as illegal at the federal level. Congress has tried and is currently trying to pass bills to remove CBD from the Controlled Substances Act—which would be unnecessary if the compound were already legal. Further, the Controlled Substances Act itself specifies that the government has the right to control substances that are chemically similar to the ones explicitly listed.
While CBD oil does a fine job of reducing stress, anxiety and the effects of chronic pain, it doesn’t have the same localized effect as CBD cream for pain. For example, if you have severe shoulder pain, CBD cream is a much better option than oil because it will get to work on that area immediately. The CBD in the topical combines with the CB2 receptors in our skin. As it doesn’t reach the bloodstream, it is best used for localized pain since it doesn’t offer full-body pain relief.
14. In making the two previous determinations about THC, why did FDA conclude that THC is an active ingredient in a drug product that has been approved under section 505 of the FD&C Act? In making the two previous determinations about CBD, why did FDA determine that substantial clinical investigations have been authorized for and/or instituted, and that the existence of such investigations has been made public?
Specific city and county laws have been enacted to regulate how citizens and tourists may possess and consume marijuana. Penalties exist for driving while under the influence of marijuana. Someone driving under the influence of marijuana is considered impaired in both Colorado and Washington when five nanograms per milliliter (ng/mL) of blood or more of active THC is detected.
“Simply put, cannabidiol is a schedule 1 controlled substance because marijuana is a schedule 1 controlled substance. Although it is a relatively new phenomenon, after thoroughly tracking the language of the Indiana law defining ‘marijuana’ it is evident that cannabidiol is now and historically has been derived from ‘a part of the plant genus cannabis.'”
PTSD causes intense anxiety and fear, and it is caused by severe trauma (such as a frightening event, war, car accident, etc.). Whatever the cause, PTSD can cause intense stress that interferes with normal life. But thanks to the calming effect of CBD, supplementing with a CBD tincture can be a way to normalize the nervous system and reduce anxiety.
Cannabis plants can be male, female, or hermaphrodite. The dried marijuana flowers that humans consume, however, come from the female plant. That’s because female plants produce large resin-secreting flowers that are rich in cannabinoids and free of seeds. Hence, female plants are the ones growers prefer, though of course, male marijuana plants are a requirement for pollination.
“There is a great deal of confusion regarding the legal status of hemp and why these products are so readily available versus marijuana-based CBD products. In 2014, the Farm Bill stated that hemp was different from marijuana, yet the Drug Enforcement Agency’s (DEA) position is that hemp comes from the cannabis sativa plant and as such falls under the controlled substance act. In 2004, the Hemp Industry Association won a court case against the DEA from the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals that ruled the DEA didn’t have the authority to ban hemp under the CSA. “By that federal court ruling, similar to non-scheduled hemp food products, this allows Medical Marijuana, Inc. (including  HempMeds®) to sell online and distribute to customers in the U.S. states,” said Dr. Stuart Titus, the company’s Chief Executive Officer.”
Wyoming has a particularly narrow law for CBD oil. It is only legal for patients with epilepsy that has not responded to other treatments. Neurologists have to give the state's Department of Health a statement about how the patient needs and would benefit from the CBD, made from hemp extract, and then the patient may be able to receive a card that allows them to receive cannabis with high concentrations of CBD and trace amounts of THC.
Finally, the entire marijuana flower structure is coated with resinous crystals called trichomes. Trichomes are translucent, mushroom-like glands that form on the entire flowering structure and even the stems of the marijuana plant. These bulb-shaped glands secrete the rich, aromatic essential oils that give cannabis its smells and flavors. Trichomes also contain cannabinoids.
Of course, though, they offer less potent oils than that, with a product lineup that ranges from 300 mg CBD per bottle to 4,000 mg. Naturally the 4,000 mg option is the most expensive (this is the one that provides the “bomb” 60 mg dose), as it currently sells for $299. For long-term pain and anxiety relief, though, it may be well worth it if it is effective for you and helps replace your regular meds.

I have spent the last year + researching over 200 CBD companies and their products. I learned how the CBD is extracted, the difference between IH (Industrial Hemp) and THC producing cannabis that is harvested early, so that is is given the legal term Hemp, but technically it is the marijuana plant, etc. First, I chose not to take CBD orally, because of how the body breaks down CBD, when you digest it, it goes through the liver first, meaning less than 20% of what you take ends up in your body. Very expensive!! With vaping CBD oil about 70% makes it right into your bloodstream. With the CBD wax/shatter/dab, it is the same. So I stopped the oral route altogether. If you would oral or vape (inhaling vapor, no combustion), you want to look to see or email the company to ask how they extract the CND, and ask if they use CBD frown in the US. I highly suggest CBD frown in the US! The old law had people growing it overseas, and shipping it here to be extracted. Make sure no solvents were used to extract the CBD, like Butane. Whatever they tell you about how they extract it, look it up! This is a MUST! The most common ways to extract are via CO2 extraction using cold temperatures sometimes called subcritical or supercritical temperatures, same with ethanol extraction, there is no solvent in that either. Please research online both methods. There are a couple of other methods, one comes to mind, but it does not stay fresh long, and I cannot recall the name, I have not found any products which use that method, which is why I cannot name it. After making sure it is not done with anything dangerous, you want to make sure they have batch lab reports that check for heavy metals, mold, and how much CBD,CBG,CBC, etc is in the product. CBD, Cannabidiol is the most common Cannabinoid found in the marijuana or hemp plant. Did you know that IH contains a very small amount of THC? it is at or under.3%, so it is low, but it does help the CBD work.
Taking a fish oil supplement can be a helpful way to increase omega-3 fatty acids in your diet, a nutrient that is essential for brain development, immune system health, and mood regulation. Expectant mothers certainly want to include these nutrients in their diet; however, fish contains a great deal of mercury which can hinder neurological and developmental mechanisms in the unborn baby. Fortunately, hemp oil works as a terrific alternative to traditional omega-3 fatty acid supplements and doesn’t carry the same risk of mercury ingestion.  

Extraction: The method by which CBD oil is processed from hemp plants can be very telling. Some manufacturers extract and process the oil using toxic materials like propane or butane; in most cases, these oils are cheaply priced. Safer extraction and processing agents include ethanol, which cleans the hemp plant of unwanted toxins; and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, which strips harmful materials from the plant by changing the carbon dioxide’s temperature and pressure settings.

If you are looking for an alternative substance in order to relieve any sort of pains, just ask real people who have made the switch from pharmaceutical drugs and opted to use CBD oils instead. They have favored and claimed that products such as Medix CBD chews, oils, and creams have significantly seemed to improve their ailments, all while having no known side effects up to this date.


I suffer from Fibromyalgia, spinal stenosis, osteoporosis, arthritis, and 66 yeas of wear and tear. I was overwhelmed by the endless varieties of hemp oil even after reading all the product info, so I chose to go with Amazon’s pick.this has a subtle mint flavor and within 2days, I was seeing a reduction in pain, better mood, and improvements in my brain fog. They have a loyal customer now. Even the headache I have had for 6 months since being put on Gabapentin is gone which means I no longer take Advil like tic tacs! Click Here For CBD
Australia's National Cannabis Prevention and Information Centre (NCPIC) states that the buds (flowers) of the female cannabis plant contain the highest concentration of THC, followed by the leaves. The stalks and seeds have "much lower THC levels".[161] The UN states that leaves can contain ten times less THC than the buds, and the stalks one hundred times less THC.[158]
Specific city and county laws have been enacted to regulate how citizens and tourists may possess and consume marijuana. Penalties exist for driving while under the influence of marijuana. Someone driving under the influence of marijuana is considered impaired in both Colorado and Washington when five nanograms per milliliter (ng/mL) of blood or more of active THC is detected.
CBD Pain Cream is completely natural, as well. Plus, it works with your body to get you better results. † Now, a little disclaimer, CBD has nothing to do with smoking marijuana or using it. It’s completely natural and legal. Yes, it’s extracted from the Marijuana plant like THC is, but this contains no THC and is legal in all 50 states. In fact, the pain-relieving effects of CBD are so strong that big pharmaceutical companies feel threatened. They spend millions of dollars a year trying to crush this movement. But, you can get CBD Pain Cream today for a discounted price to see it work for yourself!
The mosaic of laws that govern CBD legality across the globe varies just as much as the legislation across the US. Generally, CBD extract is legal in most countries, but what makes it illegal is where and what it’s extracted from. Most Group of 20 (G20) countries allow CBD extracted from industrial hemp, but not CBD extracted from whole-plant marijuana. Note, however, the differences between the two. Legislation regarding international travel with CBD also varies among countries. For the foreseeable future, the best practice would be to search online, or contact the respective embassies or consulates, before traveling to determine whether your CBD is safe and legal.

While medical marijuana is grown to be high in CBD for the treatment of specific ailments, the THC content can vary dramatically, sometimes getting as high as the CBD content. For an excellent example of the types of marijuana you may find in a licensed dispensary, see this Strain Book. It shows you the types of plants, the percentages of CBD and THC, and even the taste and effects of the stain.


The 2014 Farm Bill is often cited as evidence that CBD derived from industrial hemp is now legal. But the legislation legalized only a very narrow set of hemp cultivation activities: It is legal to grow hemp under a state pilot program or for academic research. It is also legal to cultivate under state law "in which such institution of higher education or state department of agriculture is located and such research occurs."
I am a senior citizen with problem with my lower back, shoulder and neck pain, scar tissue discomfort from breast cancer surgeries, right ankle pain, doctor's diagnosed me with osteoarthritis, discomfort with closing my left hand whereas I can't make a fist, wrist pain that can cause me to drop a plate from time to time, and last but not least is knee pain even though I have had knee replacement surgery. I am in pain 24/7 and have tired to just endure without constantly taking OTC medications. I refuse to continue taking prescription medications. As I was researching about Black Seed Oil then I came up on HEMP Seed Oil. There are many strengths but I decided on the 350 mg. I read about the benefits of Hemp Seed and decided to give it a try. But before I could, I had to find the right one. There are so many hemp seed oils out there and not all are as good as the one that I selected according to reading the reviews of others. My Beyond Bliss Hemp Seed Oil was delivered very quickly and I tried it the very same day. To my amazement, the pain in my knee, hand, wrist, chest went away that very night. I woke up feeling more refreshed with a good night sleep. I still have a little discomfort with my neck and shoulders but I'm hoping that with dissipate with more intake of the Beyond Bliss Hemp Seed Oil. For most of my pain to go away within the first try; this is a miracle for me and a keeper. I've already ordered and paid for another bottle for my daughter. The company sent a 'thank you for your order card and instructions to request a free bottle'. I am so impressed that I had to order another bottle for my daughter that has problems with her knee and foot when she walks, I just could not wait for the free bottle and that's why I decided to order one for her. Again, this is a good product that should hopefully work for you. All I can say is to give this company a try, I don't feel you will go wrong.
Taking a fish oil supplement can be a helpful way to increase omega-3 fatty acids in your diet, a nutrient that is essential for brain development, immune system health, and mood regulation. Expectant mothers certainly want to include these nutrients in their diet; however, fish contains a great deal of mercury which can hinder neurological and developmental mechanisms in the unborn baby. Fortunately, hemp oil works as a terrific alternative to traditional omega-3 fatty acid supplements and doesn’t carry the same risk of mercury ingestion.  
“The DEA makes it clear they don’t have to explicitly list anything as a controlled substance as long as a substance is intended for human ingestion, not approved as a drug by the (US Food and Drug Administration), or is structurally or pharmacologically similar to another controlled substance,” he told Leafly. “This DEA rulemaking change doesn’t make it any more illegal” than it previously was. The new rule “was an administrative change,” Armentano added. “It has nothing to do with law enforcement.”

Glass Bongs are basically a water filtration gadget that is utilized to consume tobacco, herbs or cannabis. It looks nearly in the state of a hookah or shisha with the exception of the way that it is effectively compact anyplace. The real significance of the term bong originates from Thai word "Baung" a round and hollow smoking tube made of bamboo or wood.
This article reviews recent research on cannabinoid analgesia via the endocannabinoid system and non-receptor mechanisms, as well as randomized clinical trials employing cannabinoids in pain treatment. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, Marinol®) and nabilone (Cesamet®) are currently approved in the United States and other countries, but not for pain indications. Other synthetic cannabinoids, such as ajulemic acid, are in development. Crude herbal cannabis remains illegal in most jurisdictions but is also under investigation. Sativex®, a cannabis derived oromucosal spray containing equal proportions of THC (partial CB1 receptor agonist ) and cannabidiol (CBD, a non-euphoriant, anti-inflammatory analgesic with CB1 receptor antagonist and endocannabinoid modulating effects) was approved in Canada in 2005 for treatment of central neuropathic pain in multiple sclerosis, and in 2007 for intractable cancer pain. Numerous randomized clinical trials have demonstrated safety and efficacy for Sativex in central and peripheral neuropathic pain, rheumatoid arthritis and cancer pain. An Investigational New Drug application to conduct advanced clinical trials for cancer pain was approved by the US FDA in January 2006. Cannabinoid analgesics have generally been well tolerated in clinical trials with acceptable adverse event profiles. Their adjunctive addition to the pharmacological armamentarium for treatment of pain shows great promise.
In April of 2015 Gov. Fallin signed HB 2154 which allows physicians in Oklahoma to recommend a high-CBD cannabis oil (less than .3% THC) to minors suffering from a severe epilepsy disorder like Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome or Dravet Syndrome. In 2016, the state adopted HB 2835, which expanded legal protections to patients of all ages and added several new qualifying conditions.
Cultivating hemp is illegal in the US; importing hemp and hemp products, including hemp oil, rich in CBD, is not. How bloody hard is that to know? Why is Leafly allowing the publication of such contrarian articles? Lust for the fortunes that deputy editor, Barcott, is still chasing? DEA’s Rosenberg rule is just a rule … the 9th Circuit Court blasted them in the 2001 case and PERMANENTLY ENJOINED the DEA from making law. They can write all the rules they want, but they cannot make law. That is the job of Congress, and so far, Congress has not made a damn ruling about ANYTHING … but hang in there!

RSHO™ CBD hemp oil is available in four varieties of high-quality, pure cannabidiol oil, including Green Label, Blue Label, Gold Label, and Special Blend. RSHO™ contains between 50mg and 190mg of cannabidiol per 0.5 gram serving. Each of the pure CBD hemp oil varieties come in 3 gram and 10 gram applicators. For regular users, 3 packs and 6 packs of applicators are available.

Marijuana.com informs, engages and grows the cannabis community through coverage of marijuana law + politics, science + medicine, consumer trends, culture and commentary. The site also offers a forum for discussion of current events and issues of interest. Marijuana.com has been in operation since 1995 and is owned and operated by Weedmaps.com, the most widely used medical and recreational marijuana dispensary locator in the industry.
Before purchasing any CBD product in these states (aside from the 8 mentioned above) you must have a medical prescription issued by a certified medical doctor. Each state has a particular concentration of THC it allows to be present in a CBD product, with the percentage ranging from 0.3% — 8%. (See details in table 1.1 below). Even though the legal situation seems to be shifting in a positive direction, if you are in any of these states, it is very important to be aware of the state’s laws towards CBD.
In July 2014, North Carolina enacted HB 1220, known as North Carolina Epilepsy Alternative Treatment Act, creating a pilot program that allows medical use of CBD-rich oil only for registered patients diagnosed by a neurologist at one of four universities as having intractable epilepsy that has not been responsive to at least three other treatment options.
The existence of substantial clinical investigations regarding CBD has been made public. For example, two such substantial clinical investigations include GW Pharmaceuticals’ investigations regarding Sativex and Epidiolex. (See Sativex Commences US Phase II/III Clinical Trial in Cancer Pain and GW Pharmaceuticals Receives Investigational New Drug (IND) from FDA for Phase 2/3 Clinical Trial of Epidiolex in the Treatment of Dravet Syndrome ).
‘A good pointer of quality is that the manufacturer will be a member of the Cannabis Trades Association UK, an organisation created to ensure legal and ethical CBD trading standards, says Dr Brewer. ‘Only companies that meet high quality standards can carry its seal of approval such as Healthspan’s range of CBD Oil products, for whom I act as Medical Director.’

There are many varieties of cannabis infusions owing to the variety of non-volatile solvents used.[188] The plant material is mixed with the solvent and then pressed and filtered to express the oils of the plant into the solvent. Examples of solvents used in this process are cocoa butter, dairy butter, cooking oil, glycerine, and skin moisturizers. Depending on the solvent, these may be used in cannabis foods or applied topically.[189]
^ Jump up to: a b c Whiting, PF; Wolff, RF; Deshpande, S; Di Nisio, M; Duffy, S; Hernandez, AV; Keurentjes, JC; Lang, S; Misso, K; Ryder, S; Schmidlkofer, S; Westwood, M; Kleijnen, J (23 June 2015). "Cannabinoids for Medical Use: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis" (PDF). JAMA. 313 (24): 2456–2473. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.6358. hdl:10757/558499. PMID 26103030.
In the past several years however, public interest in CBD has skyrocketed based on claims — largely unsubstantiated through good clinical research thus far — that it may be a kind of cure-all miracle drug, with therapeutic effects ranging from pain relief to eradicating cancer. In fact, while CBD research has been limited due to federal restrictions, preliminary evidence does suggest that it might help with psychiatric conditions like anxiety disorders (note that while many people claim that CBD is not “psychoactive,” it’s potential as an anxiolytic medication suggests otherwise) and  recent randomized, controlled clinical trials suggest a possible role in the treatment of psychotic disorders.2,3 In 2018, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Epidiolex, a form of CBD manufactured by GW Pharmaceuticals, for the treatment of rare forms of pediatric epilepsy (see my blogpost "Cannabis for Kids: Can Marijuana Treat Childhood Seizures?").
The agency also has approved Marinol and Syndros for therapeutic uses in the United States, including for the treatment of anorexia associated with weight loss in AIDS patients. Marinol and Syndros include the active ingredient dronabinol, a synthetic delta-9- tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) which is considered the psychoactive component of marijuana. Another FDA-approved drug, Cesamet, contains the active ingredient nabilone, which has a chemical structure similar to THC and is synthetically derived.
Based on studies of sex reversal in hemp, it was first reported by K. Hirata in 1924 that an XY sex-determination system is present.[26] At the time, the XY system was the only known system of sex determination. The X:A system was first described in Drosophila spp in 1925.[29] Soon thereafter, Schaffner disputed Hirata's interpretation,[30] and published results from his own studies of sex reversal in hemp, concluding that an X:A system was in use and that furthermore sex was strongly influenced by environmental conditions.[27]
In making the two previous determinations about THC, why did FDA conclude that THC is an active ingredient in a drug product that has been approved under section 505 of the FD&C Act? In making the two previous determinations about CBD, why did FDA determine that substantial clinical investigations have been authorized for and/or instituted, and that the existence of such investigations has been made public?
CBD Pain Cream is a new topical product that reduces pain and inflammation that get in the way of everyday life. Are you tired of waking up in the morning and having to deal with pain right off the bat? What would it be like to wake up feeling pain-free, refreshed, and energized for the day ahead? Don’t let pain run your life! Use natural CBD to relieve pain so you can get back to what’s important. CBD comes from cannabis, but don’t worry. This product is perfectly legal and safe to use. Unlike the THC compound, the CBD is non-psychoactive or mind-altering. This means you get all the health benefits of cannabis with none of the side effects. To order your free trial of CBD Pain Cream, click the button below!

Cannabis (/ˈkænəbɪs/) is a genus of flowering plants in the family Cannabaceae. The number of species within the genus is disputed. Three species may be recognized: Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica, and Cannabis ruderalis; C. ruderalis may be included within C. sativa; all three may be treated as subspecies of a single species, C. sativa;[1][2][3][4] or C. sativa may be accepted as a single undivided species.[5] The genus is widely accepted as being indigenous to and originating from Central Asia, with some researchers also including upper South Asia in its origin.[6][7]


As of 2018, there are a total of 46 states (including the 8 states mentioned above) where CBD is legal with a prescription for medicinal usage. Now although CBD usage is for legal in these states, the law varies from state to state, with 17 states having specific legislation for the THC-levels found in CBD and the conditions being treated with CBD.
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