Debate continues with regard to the relationship between cannabis usage and schizophrenia (reviewed (Fride and Russo 2006)). An etiological relationship is not supported by epidemiological data (Degenhardt et al 2003), but if present, should bear relation to dose and length of high exposure. It is likely that lower serum levels of Sativex in therapeutic usage, in conjunction with anti-psychotic properties of CBD (Zuardi and Guimaraes 1997), would minimize risks. Children and adolescents have been excluded from Sativex RCTs to date. SAFEX studies of Sativex have yielded few incidents of thought disorder, paranoia or related complaints.
Put simply, “indica” strains are those associated with a strong body-high, feelings of sedation and relaxation. For this reason, indicas are often thought of as the “heavier” strains of cannabis, offering stronger highs that impact the whole body. They’re popular among marijuana users as pain relieving and sleep-inducing strains. Indicas are especially popular among medical cannabis patients.
Before purchasing any CBD product in these states (aside from the 8 mentioned above) you must have a medical prescription issued by a certified medical doctor. Each state has a particular concentration of THC it allows to be present in a CBD product, with the percentage ranging from 0.3% — 8%. (See details in table 1.1 below). Even though the legal situation seems to be shifting in a positive direction, if you are in any of these states, it is very important to be aware of the state’s laws towards CBD.
     While these CDB laws are well intentioned and make certain types of cannabis oil legal in certain states, many of them are extremely exclusive as to what illnesses may qualify patients for use, and limit production of the plant—in most cases Charlotte's Web— to a handful of licensed facilities. These laws have drawn both praise and criticism from various groups, as many feel they stop well short of where we eventually need to be in regards to Medical Marijuana Oil and Medical Cannabis, limiting the use to only a handful of patients that are on a very short list of approved conditions and in some cases, exclusively for Epilepsy.
Third-party testing: Once a CBD oil is manufactured, CBD oil companies will often submit their products for third-party tests, which are conducted by non-company personnel to ensure the product is safe for public consumption and meets quality standards.CBD oils should always be accompanied with information about third-party tests; best practice is to avoid oils that do not supply these details.

CBD oil alleviates physical pain and anxiety – both of which can have a negative impact on sleep. Additionally, CBD oil can actually prolong sleep for some, leading to more rest from night to night. Most medical experts agree that marijuana is not particularly beneficial for individuals with medical conditions and/or mental health disorders, as the THC can increase their symptoms; this makes CBD oil a good alternative option for people with the following sleep disorders and medical conditions.


The situation isn’t much better in the UK; there are so many legal grey areas surrounding cannabis in hemp and CBD form that nobody knows the full extent of the law today. CBD oil is completely legal in the UK, but there is apparent illegality surrounding the possession of hemp flowers. This article is a good read for looking at cannabis laws (including hemp and CBD) in the UK
Since 1929, Standard Process has been the visionary leader in whole food nutrient solutions. We apply systems thinking to holistic nutrition that empowers practitioners to transform lives. Dedicated to the whole food philosophy of our founder, Dr. Royal Lee, our goal is to carry on his mission to provide nutrients for the body that are as close as possible to how they are found in nature.
Hemp hasn't always been on the wrong side of the authorities. The Puritans brought hemp with them to New England in 1645 and Europeans were growing it even earlier in Chile. George Washington planted hemp as one of several crops at his Mount Vernon estate. However, hemp's popularity waned in America as other plants used for textiles such as cotton and jute became more widely available. The U.S. Navy briefly campaigned for more hemp farming during World War II to supply ropes for ships. But the federal government continued restrictions on hemp after the war.
The 2014 Farm Bill[76] legalized the sale of "non-viable hemp material" grown within states participating in the Hemp Pilot Program.[77] This legislation defined hemp as cannabis containing less than 0.3% of THC delta-9, grown within the regulatory framework of the Hemp Pilot Program.[78] The 2018 Farm Bill allowed for interstate commerce of hemp derived products, though these products still fall under the purview of the FDA.[79][80]

PTSD. My husband suffers chronic PTSD from active military service. We live not far from a large Army base and though my husband served with another counties military we hear stories constantly of family breakdowns over PTSD. It’s not a easy path but I’m hoping one day to find something to stop the endless trips to the psych ward. It’s just not right that those who serve come home to no government help.
Elixinol has a wide range of products, but their CBD Tincture does the trick. It’s the cream of the crop regarding CBD oils and that reflects in its price. One dropper (1mg) from the 300 series contains 10mg of CBD. This allows you to get precise amounts of CBD and no guess work is required. Elixinol has received numerous awards for their products and extraction process.
Hashish (also spelled hasheesh, hashisha, or simply hash) is a concentrated resin cake or ball produced from pressed kief, the detached trichomes and fine material that falls off cannabis flowers and leaves.[178] or from scraping the resin from the surface of the plants and rolling it into balls. It varies in color from black to golden brown depending upon purity and variety of cultivar it was obtained from.[179] It can be consumed orally or smoked, and is also vaporised, or 'vaped'.[180] The term "rosin hash" refers to a high quality solventless product obtained through heat and pressure.[181]
Go natural with CBD! This has become one of the biggest health trends as of late, and for good reason. CBD is a natural compound that has a multitude of health benefits. And unlike THC, this cannabis compound is non-psychoactive. It is perfectly legal, safe to use, and effective on a variety of levels. Whether you are trying to reduce pain from an injury or nurse inflammation from sickness or aging, CBD Pain Cream is your ticket to a pain-free life!  † And now you can try it first before buying. To view your ordering options, simply click the banner below!
Contrary to popular opinion, the external application is not the only way by which CBD oil can be consumed. By placing it under the tongue, many consume CBD oil directly. CBD oil has also been innovatively infused into products such as moisturizers and topical creams. CBD oil is an acceptable food supplement, serving as an addendum to cookies, brownies or even tacos! CBD oil capsules are a means by which they can be ingested.
2104 saw very limited growing of domestic Hemp, as new programs were set up and established, but 2015 and 16 saw a sizable increase in production as many hemp farmers in Colorado, Oregon, Kentucky and Tennessee rolled out production under various state hemp programs. Unfair Marijuana laws should not restrict the growth of Hemp in the U.S, which has a long and proud relationship with Hemp, until it was criminalized along with cannabis by definition of the term Marijuana which came to encompass both illicit Marijuana as well as benign Hemp plants under U.S. law.
The Hon. Tammy Anne Franks, is a Greens member of the South Australian Legislative Council where she has actively championed access to medicinal cannabis for South Australians in that Parliament. She has early this year had her private members bill for legal Industrial Hemp production and cultivation (including medicinal cannabis research crops) passed through that Parliament prompting the Minister for Manufacturing and Innovation to establish the SA Office for Industrial Hemp and Medicinal Cannabis within the Department of State Development.
The existence of substantial clinical investigations regarding CBD has been made public. For example, two such substantial clinical investigations include GW Pharmaceuticals’ investigations regarding Sativex and Epidiolex. (See Sativex Commences US Phase II/III Clinical Trial in Cancer Pain and GW Pharmaceuticals Receives Investigational New Drug (IND) from FDA for Phase 2/3 Clinical Trial of Epidiolex in the Treatment of Dravet Syndrome ).
The HPRA is the competent authority for authorising medicinal products in Ireland. Its role is to ensure that only products that are safe, effective and of an appropriate quality based on clinical and scientific data can be authorised and supplied as medicines in Ireland (see HPRA’s report: Cannabis for Medical Use - A Scientific Review). At present there are no authorised medicines in Ireland that contain CBD as the only active ingredient. Accordingly, CBD products currently being sold for consumer use are not approved for the prevention or treatment of medical conditions or symptoms associated with such conditions.
Hemp oil is comprised of 25 percent protein, says Dr. Andrew Weil, the program director for the Arizona Center for Integrative Medicine, which is recognized by the Arizona Board of Regents. This high-quality protein provides amino acids in ratios similar to the protein in meats and eggs. The structure of hemp oil proteins makes them easily digestible. Compared to other oils, hemp oil provides the protein and amino acids the body needs without adding unnecessary calories.
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Even though hemp contains virtually no THC, the answer to the question, “Is hemp oil legal?” is not that simple. As of 2019, CBD derived from hemp is legal nationwide. This includes all hemp-derived CBD products like oils, edibles, and ointments. However, marijuana-derived CBD does not enjoy the same privileges as hemp. In some states, CBD derived from marijuana is completely legal; but in most states, its legality depends on a number of different factors and conditions.
Hemp oil can be used for the treatment of minor health ailments and as a dietary supplement for the promotion of general good health. Hemp oil is considered one of the most useful natural supplements for the body due to its ability to provide essential fatty acids to humans that we would not be able to manufacture on our own. However, you should also be aware of potential side effects associated with hemp oil. As such, be sure to speak to a medical professional for more information on hemp oil effects.

When elected to the presidency of the RACGP he said, “I will be passionate and vocal in advocating for primary healthcare and look forward to the challenge ahead”. Dr Seidel we hope that you can rise to the challenge of introducing Medicinal Cannabis to the mainstream of General Practice through education and encouragement of your peers. We strongly welcome you and thank you for your participation at this symposium.
These are one of the most popular (and effective) choices for arthritis and other forms of localized pain and inflammation. Since the skin acts as an excellent semi-permeable membrane that “let’s the good stuff and keeps the bad stuff out,” rubbing CBD-infused creams into the affected area has proved to be quite effective in terms of both pain and inflammation reduction.
The truth is, we still don’t have nearly the amount of research needed to fully understand the effects of each and every cannabinoid on our system. With that said, if you have symptoms or conditions that CBD can help with, go with pure CBD oil. If you are suffering from something more general like chronic pain, a full-spectrum hemp oil could bring some additional benefits from the extra cannabinoids. Try hemp-based products as well as pure CBD products, and let us know what you experience!

The nervous system’s endocannabinoid system is not well understood. But it’s thought to play a role in regulating pain, sleep, mood, memory, appetite, and other cognitive and physical processes. Because CBD is able to mimic the actions of some natural brain chemicals, its potential therapeutic benefits are wide-ranging but—at this point—nebulous. “We know that cannabidiol modulates the endocannabinoid system, but we don’t know how it works,” Szaflarski says. That said, there are theories.
In a Phase II double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, 5-week study of 56 rheumatoid arthritis patients with Sativex (Blake et al 2006), employed nocturnal treatment only to a maximum of 6 sprays per evening (16.2 mg THC + 15 mg CBD). In the final treatment week, morning pain on movement, morning pain at rest, DAS-28 measure of disease activity, and SF-MPQ pain at present all favored Sativex over placebo (Table 1).
^ Parliament of the Czech Republic (1998), Explanatory Report to Act No. 112/1998 Coll., which amends the Act No. 140/1961 Coll., the Criminal Code, and the Act No. 200/1990 Coll., on misdemeanors (in Czech), Prague "Podle čl. 36 Jednotné úmluvy o omamných látkách ze dne 31. března 1961 (č. 47/1965 Sb.) se signatáři zavazují k trestnímu postihu tam uvedených forem nakládání s drogami včetně jejich držby. Návrh upouští od dosavadní beztrestnosti držby omamných a psychotropních látek a jedů pro svoji potřebu. Dosavadní beztrestnost totiž eliminuje v řadě případů možnost postihu dealerů a distributorů drog."

The leaves have a peculiar and diagnostic venation pattern that enables persons poorly familiar with the plant to distinguish a cannabis leaf from unrelated species that have confusingly similar leaves (see illustration). As is common in serrated leaves, each serration has a central vein extending to its tip. However, the serration vein originates from lower down the central vein of the leaflet, typically opposite to the position of, not the first notch down, but the next notch. This means that on its way from the midrib of the leaflet to the point of the serration, the vein serving the tip of the serration passes close by the intervening notch. Sometimes the vein will actually pass tangent to the notch, but often it will pass by at a small distance, and when that happens a spur vein (occasionally a pair of such spur veins) branches off and joins the leaf margin at the deepest point of the notch. This venation pattern varies slightly among varieties, but in general it enables one to tell Cannabis leaves from superficially similar leaves without difficulty and without special equipment. Tiny samples of Cannabis plants also can be identified with precision by microscopic examination of leaf cells and similar features, but that requires special expertise and equipment.[12]


The move to Whole Plant extracts will mark an important change in the market as Whole Plant extracts derived from the flowers of the female Hemp plants are able to offer superior Cannabinoid and Terpene profiles as well as higher concentrations of base Cannabinoids, making them similar in composition/concentration to traditional Marijuana Oil extracts derived from illicit Marijuana. A look inside of one of the nations earliest whole plant CBD Hemp pilot programs producing cannabis oil legal for sale may be seen here.


CBD is a 5-HT1A receptor agonist, which may also contribute to an anxiolytic effect.[155] This likely means the high concentrations of CBD found in Cannabis indica mitigate the anxiogenic effect of THC significantly.[155] The cannabis industry claims that sativa strains provide a more stimulating psychoactive high while indica strains are more sedating with a body high.[156] However this is disputed by researchers.[157]
Several hundred million years ago mosses and their kin went one way, evolutionarily speaking, and the lineage of trees and flowering plants went the other. Somehow, in the vast expanse of geologic time that followed, a few members of these distantly related groups in the plant kingdom copied one another in making something of great interest to humans: the psychoactive chemical, or cannabinoid, that gets people high.
Other potential side effects include low blood pressure, lightheadedness, and drowsiness, but these have typically only occurred in patients who have exceeded doses of 1,500 mg daily for a period of 4 weeks or more; far more than the average person will need take on a daily basis for chronic pain symptoms. (In fact, the majority of CBD users claim they find an effective dose to be anywhere between 10 and 40 mg daily).
CBD Isolate is the purest supplement available. It’s a 99% pure CBD supplement derived from hemp oil. Despite its concentration, CBD isolate effects are similar to other CBD concentrates, and it can be used in a variety of ways. It can be consumed itself, added to foods and beverages, or vaporized. You can also add it to other CBD products to increase their potency.
Cannabis, a drug prepared from the plant Cannabis sativa (including marijuana, resin, and “skunk”), is used widely throughout the world and is especially popular in North America, Western Europe, West and Central Africa, and Oceania (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 2009). Several studies within the past decade have investigated the effect of continuous use of cannabis on psychotic illnesses, specifically schizophrenia. Zammit, Allebeck, Andreasson, Lundberg, and Lewis (2002) in Sweden found that those who smoked cannabis had a twofold increased risk of developing schizophrenia within 15 years. In addition, the researchers also found a dose–response relationship; subjects who used cannabis more heavily (over 50 reported occasions) were six times as likely to develop schizophrenia compared to those who did not use cannabis at all.
The 2018 Farm Bill was signed into law in December 2018, effectively legalizing hemp at the federal level by removing it from the federal list of controlled substances and classifying it as an agricultural commodity. As a result, CBD from hemp is legal nationwide. The Hemp Farming Act, included in the 2018 Farm Bill, is considered the most important victory in the history of the hemp industry in the United States.

Republican Governor Eric Holcomb, with the help of Republican dominant General Assembly, passed the law on Wednesday. He signed into law Senate Enrolled Act 52 that explicitly legalizes CBD oil. This was done in response to the opinion set by Attorney General Curtis Hill. The opinion that essentially said that “Simply put, cannabidiol is a Schedule 1 controlled substance because marijuana is a Schedule 1 controlled substance,”

A limited number of studies have examined the effects of cannabis smoking on the respiratory system.[88] Chronic heavy marijuana smoking is associated with coughing, production of sputum, wheezing, and other symptoms of chronic bronchitis.[68] The available evidence does not support a causal relationship between cannabis use and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.[89] Short-term use of cannabis is associated with bronchodilation.[90] Other side effects of cannabis use include cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome.[91]

There is a lot of excitement about hemp oil these days. There is also a lot of confusion. While many people have heard of hemp oil, they aren’t exactly sure what it does. Or whether or not it contains THC, the psychoactive ingredient in marijuana. Will hemp oil make you “high”? If you use a hemp oil supplement are you breaking any laws? The following are answers to some of the most frequently asked questions about hemp oil.

One of the main benefits of using CBD for pain relief is the fact that it doesn’t cause the same dependency that people get from using pharmaceutical pain medication. People have been looking into alternative pain medication for a long time – in fact plant-based treatments such as turmeric and frankincense have been used for a long time as natural therapies for pain. Cannabidiol is one such treatment that has a long history as a pain medication. Only recently the medical sector has acknowledged its use as a legitimate treatment for a variety of ailments including chronic pain.
Hey Justin, after further research and consultation it looks like the law is still a little unclear. According to NWTimes, CBD is now legal; however the law further clarifies that the CBD must contain certification that it contains less than 0.3% THC and is derived from industrial-hemp and not marijuana. That said, CBD from industrial hemp is legal for recreational usage, while CBD derived from marijuana is still viewed under the same laws as marijuana.… Read more » 

When the researchers evaluated the effects of PET compared with THC on inflammation pathways in mouse brains, they finally found a difference. Although PET’s psychoactive effects were less potent, it reduced certain molecules associated with inflammation, says study author Michael Schafroth, currently a postdoctoral researcher at The Scripps Research Institute.

Although hemp and marijuana are essentially different cultivars of the same plant – Cannabis sativa L – marijuana has been cultivated to concentrate high levels of THC (frequently as much as 18%), in the plant’s flowering tops, whereas hemp, which is primarily grown in Europe to make clothing, paper, biofuels, bioplastics, nutritional supplements, cosmetics, and foods, contains less than 0.3% THC.
While CBD oil does a fine job of reducing stress, anxiety and the effects of chronic pain, it doesn’t have the same localized effect as CBD cream for pain. For example, if you have severe shoulder pain, CBD cream is a much better option than oil because it will get to work on that area immediately. The CBD in the topical combines with the CB2 receptors in our skin. As it doesn’t reach the bloodstream, it is best used for localized pain since it doesn’t offer full-body pain relief.
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