The use of Cannabis as a mind-altering drug has been documented by archaeological finds in prehistoric societies in Eurasia and Africa.[85] The oldest written record of cannabis usage is the Greek historian Herodotus's reference to the central Eurasian Scythians taking cannabis steam baths.[86] His (c. 440 BCE) Histories records, "The Scythians, as I said, take some of this hemp-seed [presumably, flowers], and, creeping under the felt coverings, throw it upon the red-hot stones; immediately it smokes, and gives out such a vapour as no Grecian vapour-bath can exceed; the Scyths, delighted, shout for joy."[87] Classical Greeks and Romans were using cannabis, while in the Middle East, use spread throughout the Islamic empire to North Africa. In 1545, cannabis spread to the western hemisphere where Spaniards imported it to Chile for its use as fiber. In North America, cannabis, in the form of hemp, was grown for use in rope, clothing and paper.[88][89][90][91]
The scientific debate regarding taxonomy has had little effect on the terminology in widespread use among cultivators and users of drug-type Cannabis. Cannabis aficionados recognize three distinct types based on such factors as morphology, native range, aroma, and subjective psychoactive characteristics. Sativa is the most widespread variety, which is usually tall, laxly branched, and found in warm lowland regions. Indica designates shorter, bushier plants adapted to cooler climates and highland environments. Ruderalis is the informal name for the short plants that grow wild in Europe and Central Asia.
Born in the foothills of the Rocky Mountains, we’ve been growing some of the safest and most thoroughly tested medical cannabis on the market since 2016. Our state-of-the-art facility in Cremona, Alberta, was specifically designed to keep our plants happy, and alongside a meticulous process of harvesting and curing we ensure only the best product arrives at your door.

The exploding recreational market for marijuana has rapidly popularized many methods of consuming cannabis that was decidedly part of the fringe just a few short years ago. Smoking marijuana remains the most widely embraced method, due to the greater accessibility of marijuana flower. But legal recreational cannabis is introducing many marijuana users to new forms of the drug, especially concentrates and edibles. Here’s a brief overview of the major methods for consuming marijuana.
The company said the nine-month adjusted EBITDA (earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization) figure should have been C$155.2 million ($117.8 million) but was incorrectly stated as C$69.0 million. “The Adjusted EBITDA loss for the three months ended as December 31, 2018 was correct as reported, as were all prior quarters as released,” the company said in a statement.
Years passed, and more studies rolled out with medically beneficial findings regarding cannabis until 2009 when Steep Hill Laboratory in Oakland, California, tested cannabis samples provided by Harborside Health Center to discover that a handful of cultivars contained more CBD than THC. This discovery kicked other labs into gear. They wanted to study medical cannabis to understand and potentially calibrate their cannabinoid ratios. Soon thereafter, laboratories uncovered CBD-dominant strains boasting 20:1 CBD to THC ratios, which opened up the cannabis market for a panoply of CBD products. 

"Cannabinoids have been found to have antioxidant properties, unrelated to NMDA receptor antagonism. This new found property makes cannabinoids useful in the treatment and prophylaxis of wide variety of oxidation associated diseases, such as ischemic, age-related, inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The cannabinoids are found to have particular application as neuroprotectants, for example in limiting neurological damage following ischemic insults, such as stroke and trauma, or in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and HIV dementia.
^ Parliament of the Czech Republic (1998), Explanatory Report to Act No. 112/1998 Coll., which amends the Act No. 140/1961 Coll., the Criminal Code, and the Act No. 200/1990 Coll., on misdemeanors (in Czech), Prague "Podle čl. 36 Jednotné úmluvy o omamných látkách ze dne 31. března 1961 (č. 47/1965 Sb.) se signatáři zavazují k trestnímu postihu tam uvedených forem nakládání s drogami včetně jejich držby. Návrh upouští od dosavadní beztrestnosti držby omamných a psychotropních látek a jedů pro svoji potřebu. Dosavadní beztrestnost totiž eliminuje v řadě případů možnost postihu dealerů a distributorů drog."

Cannabidiol is insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents such as pentane. At room temperature, it is a colorless crystalline solid.[43] In strongly basic media and the presence of air, it is oxidized to a quinone.[44] Under acidic conditions it cyclizes to THC,[45] which also occurs during pyrolysis (smoking).[46] The synthesis of cannabidiol has been accomplished by several research groups.[47][48][49]
The endocannabinoid system is tonically active in control of pain, as demonstrated by the ability of SR141716A (rimonabant), a CB1 antagonist, to produce hyperalgesia upon administration to mice (Richardson et al 1997). As mentioned above, the ECS is active throughout the neuraxis, including integrative functions in the periacqueductal gray (Walker et al 1999a; Walker et al 1999b), and in the ventroposterolateral nucleus of the thalamus, in which cannabinoids proved to be 10-fold more potent than morphine in wide dynamic range neurons mediating pain (Martin et al 1996). The ECS also mediates central stress-induced analgesia (Hohmann et al 2005), and is active in nociceptive spinal areas (Hohmann et al 1995; Richardson et al 1998a) including mechanisms of wind-up (Strangman and Walker 1999) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors (Richardson et al 1998b). It was recently demonstrated that cannabinoid agonists suppress the maintenance of vincristine-induced allodynia through activation of CB1 and CB2 receptors in the spinal cord (Rahn et al 2007). The ECS is also active peripherally (Richardson et al 1998c) where CB1 stimulation reduces pain, inflammation and hyperalgesia. These mechanisms were also proven to include mediation of contact dermatitis via CB1 and CB2 with benefits of THC noted systemically and locally on inflammation and itch (Karsak et al 2007). Recent experiments in mice have even suggested the paramount importance of peripheral over central CB1 receptors in nociception of pain (Agarwal et al 2007)
Some users speculate about appropriate dosages or methods of application—including whether or not a small amount of THC boosts CBD’s effects, or whether different methods of administration lead to quicker or more significant effects. Some CBD producers also claim that it has a cumulative effect, and so needs to be used regularly to produce a benefit. But Grant says it’s tough to say at this point exactly how people should (or shouldn’t) be using CBD.
On May 22, 2003, Maryland became the ninth state to legalize the medical use of marijuana. Governor Robert L. Ehrlich, Jr. (R) signed a bill (which went into effect on October 1, 2003), that applies to defendants possessing less than one ounce of marijuana and who can prove they used marijuana out of medical necessity and with a doctor's recommendation.
Whether the drug and non-drug, cultivated and wild types of Cannabis constitute a single, highly variable species, or the genus is polytypic with more than one species, has been a subject of debate for well over two centuries. This is a contentious issue because there is no universally accepted definition of a species.[54] One widely applied criterion for species recognition is that species are "groups of actually or potentially interbreeding natural populations which are reproductively isolated from other such groups."[55] Populations that are physiologically capable of interbreeding, but morphologically or genetically divergent and isolated by geography or ecology, are sometimes considered to be separate species.[55] Physiological barriers to reproduction are not known to occur within Cannabis, and plants from widely divergent sources are interfertile.[43] However, physical barriers to gene exchange (such as the Himalayan mountain range) might have enabled Cannabis gene pools to diverge before the onset of human intervention, resulting in speciation.[56] It remains controversial whether sufficient morphological and genetic divergence occurs within the genus as a result of geographical or ecological isolation to justify recognition of more than one species.[57][58][59]
In 2019, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) announced that CBD and other cannabinoids would be classified as "novel foods",[85] meaning that CBD products would require authorization under the EU Novel Food Regulation stating: because "this product was not used as a food or food ingredient before 15 May 1997, before it may be placed on the market in the EU as a food or food ingredient, a safety assessment under the Novel Food Regulation is required."[86] The recommendation – applying to CBD extracts, synthesized CBD, and all CBD products, including CBD oil – was scheduled for a final ruling by the European Commission in March 2019.[85] If approved, manufacturers of CBD products would be required to conduct safety tests and prove safe consumption, indicating that CBD products would not be eligible for legal commerce until at least 2021.[85]
A. The FDA is aware that several states have either passed laws that remove state restrictions on the medical use of marijuana and its derivatives or are considering doing so. It is important to conduct medical research into the safety and effectiveness of marijuana products through adequate and well-controlled clinical trials. We welcome the opportunity to talk with states who are considering support for medical research of marijuana and its derivatives to provide information on Federal and scientific standards.
The FDA relies on applicants and scientific investigators to conduct research. Our role, as outlined in the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, is to review data submitted to the FDA in a marketing application to determine whether a proposed drug product meets the statutory standards for approval. Additional information concerning research on the medical use of marijuana is available from the National Institutes of Health, particularly the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and NIDA.
Hemp Seed Oil is derived from the hemp seeds and are mainly used for dietary purposes (imagine something similar to coconut oil). Refined hemp seed oil can also be used in beauty care products, as they have amazing skin care properties. CBD Hemp oil is not the same thing as hemp seed oil, as it is extracted from one of hemp’s many cannabinoids and have fundamentally different properties.
Colorado's first and oldest medical cannabis law is a citizens’ initiative called Amendment 20 that amends the state constitution to authorize patients to possess and use medical cannabis and to be assisted by a caregiver. Colorado's second medical cannabis law, the Colorado Medical Marijuana Code (C.R.S. 12-43.3-101 et seq.), was enacted by the legislature in the summer of 2010 to establish a dual licensing mechanism that regulates medical cannabis business at both the state and local level.
There is a lot of excitement about hemp oil these days. There is also a lot of confusion. While many people have heard of hemp oil, they aren’t exactly sure what it does. Or whether or not it contains THC, the psychoactive ingredient in marijuana. Will hemp oil make you “high”? If you use a hemp oil supplement are you breaking any laws? The following are answers to some of the most frequently asked questions about hemp oil.
There are close to four hundred natural compounds in both marijuana and hemp. Understanding the two most prevalent, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), is the key to understanding the difference between hemp oil and cannabis oil. THC is the cannabinoid responsible for giving a high or ‘stoned’ feeling. CBD, on the other hand, is not psychotropic. Recently it has attracted a lot of attention from researchers, experts, and entrepreneurs.

While CBD can be extracted from non-hemp varieties of the plant, hemp-derived CBD is less restricted by the government because of its inherently low levels of THC. CBD from hemp is legal for sale in most US states, while CBD products derived from non-hemp varieties can contain noticeable amounts of THC, and are therefore subject to stricter laws and regulations.
^ Acj, Zondo (2017-08-02). "Minister of Justice and Constitutional Development and Others v Prince (Clarke, Stobbs and Thorpe Intervening) (Doctors of Life International Inc as Amicus Curiae); National Director of Public Prosecutions and Others v Rubin; National Director of Public Prosecutions and Others v Acton and Others". The Constitutional Court of South Africa.
The agency also has approved Marinol and Syndros for therapeutic uses in the United States, including for the treatment of anorexia associated with weight loss in AIDS patients. Marinol and Syndros include the active ingredient dronabinol, a synthetic delta-9- tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) which is considered the psychoactive component of marijuana. Another FDA-approved drug, Cesamet, contains the active ingredient nabilone, which has a chemical structure similar to THC and is synthetically derived.
Although marijuana smoke contains a number of carcinogens findings from a limited number of well-designed studies do not suggest an increased risk for the development of either lung or upper airway cancer from light or moderate use. However, the evidence is mixed when it comes to the carcinogenic risks of heavy, long-term marijuana users, according to this study.
In addition to the daily pain management program outlined above, many people find they still need a safe way to manage acute flare ups. Whether it’s caused by a recent injury, cold weather, or general aggravation  – we recommend vaporizing CBD isolate to combat these acute pain flare ups. The benefit of vaporizing or dabbing CBD isolate is that the relief can be felt almost instantaneously. CBD isolate is 99% pure CBD and provides a wave of relief that can be felt throughout the whole body.
Another concern is about medications with which CBD might interact. This won’t be an issue with most drugs, says Sunil Kumar Aggarwal, M.D., Ph.D., a palliative medicine physician and scientist who studies cannabis and integrates it into his Seattle medical practice. The exceptions are blood thinners, IV antibiotics, and other drugs whose exact dosing is crucial and must be monitored closely, he says. (Of course, if you have a health problem, talk to your doctor before using CBD, and never take it instead of seeing your physician for a serious condition.)

CBD oil sourced from hemp is legal all across the U.S when sold as a dietary supplement. Our full-spectrum CBD oil products, when taken daily, add CBD, as well as essential vitamins, minerals, fatty acids, terpenes, flavonoids, and other trace cannabinoids, to your healthy diet. Try one of these healthy recipes for easily adding CBD into your meals.
Cannabis, a drug prepared from the plant Cannabis sativa (including marijuana, resin, and “skunk”), is used widely throughout the world and is especially popular in North America, Western Europe, West and Central Africa, and Oceania (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 2009). Several studies within the past decade have investigated the effect of continuous use of cannabis on psychotic illnesses, specifically schizophrenia. Zammit, Allebeck, Andreasson, Lundberg, and Lewis (2002) in Sweden found that those who smoked cannabis had a twofold increased risk of developing schizophrenia within 15 years. In addition, the researchers also found a dose–response relationship; subjects who used cannabis more heavily (over 50 reported occasions) were six times as likely to develop schizophrenia compared to those who did not use cannabis at all.
CBD Oil can also contain ZERO amount of THC. If this were coffee, it’s all in the grind. It still is, figuratively, for hemp CBD oil. We developed a product from listening to our customers that needed 100% certainty their oil didn’t contain trace amounts of THC. Like who? First responders, athletes, military personnel, or anyone that wants 100% confidence they’re consuming only CBD. Read more about it here.
CBD Oil can also contain ZERO amount of THC. If this were coffee, it’s all in the grind. It still is, figuratively, for hemp CBD oil. We developed a product from listening to our customers that needed 100% certainty their oil didn’t contain trace amounts of THC. Like who? First responders, athletes, military personnel, or anyone that wants 100% confidence they’re consuming only CBD. Read more about it here.
I suffer from Fibromyalgia, spinal stenosis, osteoporosis, arthritis, and 66 yeas of wear and tear. I was overwhelmed by the endless varieties of hemp oil even after reading all the product info, so I chose to go with Amazon’s pick.this has a subtle mint flavor and within 2days, I was seeing a reduction in pain, better mood, and improvements in my brain fog. They have a loyal customer now. Even the headache I have had for 6 months since being put on Gabapentin is gone which means I no longer take Advil like tic tacs! Click Here For CBD

The company reported a 282% increase in quarterly revenue as marijuana became legal in Canada, but earnings were slammed by paper losses and accounting quirks that may be unfamiliar to U.S. investors. Canadian companies use a different accounting standard to GAAP, or Generally Accepted Accounting Principles, the one U.S. companies are required to follow.
Cannabidiol is insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents such as pentane. At room temperature, it is a colorless crystalline solid.[43] In strongly basic media and the presence of air, it is oxidized to a quinone.[44] Under acidic conditions it cyclizes to THC,[45] which also occurs during pyrolysis (smoking).[46] The synthesis of cannabidiol has been accomplished by several research groups.[47][48][49]

A 2008 study found, “that a controlled cannabis extract, containing multiple cannabinoids, in a defined ratio, and other non-cannabinoid fractions (terpenes and flavonoids) provided better antinociceptive efficacy than the single cannabinoid given alone…” This is why the use of full-spectrum CBD oil is more effective in treating pain than taking CBD isolate alone – you want the beneficial terpenes and flavonoids contained in the plant.
The company said the nine-month adjusted EBITDA (earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization) figure should have been C$155.2 million ($117.8 million) but was incorrectly stated as C$69.0 million. “The Adjusted EBITDA loss for the three months ended as December 31, 2018 was correct as reported, as were all prior quarters as released,” the company said in a statement.

While CBD oil does a fine job of reducing stress, anxiety and the effects of chronic pain, it doesn’t have the same localized effect as CBD cream for pain. For example, if you have severe shoulder pain, CBD cream is a much better option than oil because it will get to work on that area immediately. The CBD in the topical combines with the CB2 receptors in our skin. As it doesn’t reach the bloodstream, it is best used for localized pain since it doesn’t offer full-body pain relief.
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