An alternative to the gateway hypothesis is the common liability to addiction (CLA) theory. It states that some individuals are, for various reasons, willing to try multiple recreational substances. The "gateway" drugs are merely those that are (usually) available at an earlier age than the harder drugs. Researchers have noted in an extensive review that it is dangerous to present the sequence of events described in gateway "theory" in causative terms as this hinders both research and intervention.[270]
This cream is magical. I suffer from knee problems, back problems, arthritis everywhere, the list goes on. I apply this cream where needed when needed, and not only does it bring relief, it buys me more time of not needing the relief…..sometimes a week will go buy before i need to apply it again. Better than any holistic cream/salve, and prescription cream I’ve ever had.

Seaport Global initiated coverage of the cannabis sector on Thursday, assigning buy ratings to Aphria Inc. APHA, +2.27% Hexo Corp. HEXO, -1.50%  , HEXO, -1.65%  Green Organic Dutchman TGODF, +0.35%  , TGOD, +0.27%  KushCo Holdings Inc. KSHB, +4.75% MedMen Enterprises Inc. MMNFF, -0.98% Green Thumb Industries Inc. GTBIF, +5.36% Acreage Holdings Inc. ACRGF, +0.09% iAnthus Capital Holdings Inc. ITHUF, +1.46%  and Curaleaf Holdings Inc. CURLF, +4.69%  

The main and only ingredient in CBD Pain Cream is Cannabidiol. This comes from the Marijuana plant, which has over 400 chemicals in it. Now, this won’t get you high, as it contains no THC. And, CBD is completely legal in all 50 states. Truly, CBD is a breakthrough for reducing pain, inflammation from chronic conditions, and even stress. † And, now you can get in in a convenient topical cream to help erase the pain right on the spot. Within a few minutes, you should notice your pain disappearing. And, CBD Pain Cream saves you from having to be dependent on prescriptions. †
CBD has some other very important jobs outside of the endocannabinoid system (ECS). For instance, CBD mildly activates one of the brain’s predominant serotonin receptors (5-HT1A), which may explain CBD’s effects on depression and anxiety. It also acts at the peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs), which halt the proliferation of cancer cells and convey neuro- and cardioprotection. By interacting with a particular PPAR (gamma), CBD could prove to be a promising new way to prevent alzheimer’s disease and other brain disorders.
Via CB1 receptor activation, THC indirectly increases dopamine release and produces psychotropic effects.[145] Cannabidiol (CBD) also acts as an allosteric modulator of the μ- and δ-opioid receptors.[146] THC also potentiates the effects of the glycine receptors.[147] It is unknown if or how these actions contribute to the effects of cannabis.[148]
^ Blest-Hopley G, Giampietro V, Bhattacharyya S (May 2018). "Residual effects of cannabis use in adolescent and adult brains - A meta-analysis of fMRI studies". Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews. 88: 26–41. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2018.03.008. PMID 29535069. This may reflect the multitude of cognitive tasks employed by the various studies included in these meta-analyses, all of which involved performing a task thereby requiring the participant to reorient their attention and attempt to solve the problem at hand and suggest that greater engagement of this region indicates less efficient cognitive performance in cannabis users in general, irrespective of their age.
In a report published in Pediatric Dermatology in 2018, scientists reported three cases of topical CBD (applied as an oil, cream, and spray) use in children with a rare, blistering skin condition known as epidermolysis bullosa. Applied by their parents, all three people reported faster wound healing, less blisters, and improvement of pain. One person was able to completely wean off oral opioid analgesic pain medication. There were no adverse effects reported.

Reproduced with kind permission from the Australian Drug Foundation. References Australian Drug Foundation. Cannabis Facts. Last updated 25 Jan 2012. http://www.druginfo.adf.org.au/drug-facts/cannabis (accessed Jan 2013). Australian Drug Foundation (ADF) Vision: Healthy People, Strong Communities. Mission: Working together to prevent alcohol and other drug problems in communities.Related ArticlesCannabis psychosisUse of cannabis can cause a condition called drug-induced psychosis. Cannabis useCannabis can affect your physical and mental health with heavy cannabis use potentially causing psycCannabis: tolerance and dependenceAfter prolonged use, cannabis is addictive and people using cannabis regularly develop dependence anCannabis: withdrawal and treatmentIf a dependent person stops taking cannabis, they may experience withdrawal symptoms. Cannabis/marijuana: what are the effects?The effect of cannabis on a person depends on many factors including their size, weight and health aAdvertisement
These states are Idaho, Kansas, Nebraska and South Dakota. Now, even though marijuana-derived CBD is legal in these states, the laws are still unclear, so there are still businesses selling CBD, and patients using CBD in these states. We totally believe in the benefits CBD offers and support the CBD movement, but if you are in one of these states, be cautious and careful when considering using CBD products.
     CBD content in Hemp oil, when extracted from the proper strains, can be very high as Hemp plants are now the very strains that are being used to breed high CBD levels back into Cannabis after years of selective recreational breeding for high THC values. Well known strains such Charlotte's Web are hybrids that were selected from crosses with High CBD Hemp varietals and those Hemp genetics are what account for the new High CBD Strains of Marijuana and commercial Hemp that have and are being developed.
It’s also important to select CBD oil products based on your concentration preferences. Some forms of CBD oil – such as vapors and tinctures – normally have higher-than-average concentrations, whereas sprays and topicals tend to have lower concentrations. Remember: higher concentration means more pronounced effects, but not necessarily mean higher quality.
This product is not for use by or sale to persons under the age of 18. This product should be used only as directed on the label. It should not be used if you are pregnant or nursing. Consult with a physician before use if you have a serious medical condition or use prescription medications. A Doctor's advice should be sought before using this and any supplemental dietary product. All trademarks and copyrights are property of their respective owners and are not affiliated with nor do they endorse this product. These statements have not been evaluated by the FDA. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease. Individual weight loss results will vary. By using this site, you agree to follow the Privacy Policy and all Terms & Conditions printed on this site. Void Where Prohibited by Law. US GOVERNMENT PATENT #6,630,507: "CANNABINOIDS AS ANTIOXIDANTS AND NEUROPROTECTANTS
In December 2012, the U.S. state of Washington became the first state to officially legalize cannabis in a state law (Washington Initiative 502) (but still illegal by federal law),[226] with the state of Colorado following close behind (Colorado Amendment 64).[227] On January 1, 2013, the first marijuana "club" for private marijuana smoking (no buying or selling, however) was allowed for the first time in Colorado.[228] The California Supreme Court decided in May 2013 that local governments can ban medical marijuana dispensaries despite a state law in California that permits the use of cannabis for medical purposes. At least 180 cities across California have enacted bans in recent years.[229]
The plant is also known as hemp, although this term is often used to refer only to varieties of Cannabis cultivated for non-drug use. Cannabis has long been used for hemp fibre, hemp seeds and their oils, hemp leaves for use as vegetables and as juice, medicinal purposes, and as a recreational drug. Industrial hemp products are made from cannabis plants selected to produce an abundance of fiber. To satisfy the UN Narcotics Convention, some cannabis strains have been bred to produce minimal levels of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the principal psychoactive constituent. Some strains have been selectively bred to produce a maximum of THC (a cannabinoid), the strength of which is enhanced by curing the flowers. Various compounds, including hashish and hash oil, are extracted from the plant.[8]
The HPRA is the competent authority for authorising medicinal products in Ireland. Its role is to ensure that only products that are safe, effective and of an appropriate quality based on clinical and scientific data can be authorised and supplied as medicines in Ireland (see HPRA’s report: Cannabis for Medical Use - A Scientific Review). At present there are no authorised medicines in Ireland that contain CBD as the only active ingredient. Accordingly, CBD products currently being sold for consumer use are not approved for the prevention or treatment of medical conditions or symptoms associated with such conditions.
In 2014, President Obama signed the Farm Bill of 2014 into law. This law contained a section that removed hemp from Schedule 1 of the Controlled Substances Act. It also created a legal structure that made cultivation and research of hemp legal in states that wanted to initiate “Pilot Research Programs” into the cultivation and marketing of hemp and hemp-derived products.
We use a combination of both Subcritical and Supercritical extractions. This allows us to perform a “fractional extraction” by first extracting at lower pressures to remove the lighter, temperature-sensitive volatile oils, and then subsequently extracting the same material at a higher pressure to remove the remaining oils. This approach is the best because it allows us to extract a complete range of cannabinoids, terpenes, essential oils, and other beneficial phytochemicals that yield a more potent blend.
     CBD content in Hemp oil, when extracted from the proper strains, can be very high as Hemp plants are now the very strains that are being used to breed high CBD levels back into Cannabis after years of selective recreational breeding for high THC values. Well known strains such Charlotte's Web are hybrids that were selected from crosses with High CBD Hemp varietals and those Hemp genetics are what account for the new High CBD Strains of Marijuana and commercial Hemp that have and are being developed.
There are several techniques for extracting CBD oil from the cannabis plant. The extraction method determines whether the active CBD compound gets processed as a “full spectrum oil” or an “isolate.” A CBD isolate is a pure compound with no other active compounds or cannabinoids at all. A full spectrum oil contains other active plant compounds in addition to the CBD such as CBN (cannabinol) and cannabis terpenes (the part of the plant that gives the plant its aroma), and more. 
CBD oil sourced from hemp is legal all across the U.S when sold as a dietary supplement. Our full-spectrum CBD oil products, when taken daily, add CBD, as well as essential vitamins, minerals, fatty acids, terpenes, flavonoids, and other trace cannabinoids, to your healthy diet. Try one of these healthy recipes for easily adding CBD into your meals.

Cannabis, (genus Cannabis), plant belonging to the family Cannabaceae of the nettle order (Urticales). By some classifications, the genus Cannabis comprises a single species, hemp (Cannabis sativa), a stout, aromatic, erect annual herb that originated in Central Asia and is now cultivated worldwide, including in Europe, southern Asia, the Middle East, India, Africa, and the Americas. A tall canelike variety is raised for the production of hemp fibre, while the female plant of a short branchier variety is prized as the more abundant source of the psychoactive substance tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the active ingredient of marijuana.
After seasonal harvests of specific cultivars, these high-CBD hemp crops are put through a specialized solvent-free extraction process to yield a hemp oil that is naturally high in cannabidiol. This pure hemp extract is then tested for safety, quality, and cannabinoid content before being exported to our processing facilities in the United States. Importing any cannabis or hemp product into the United States is a complicated and serious task, so we leave nothing to chance before our high-CBD hemp oil makes its journey across the Atlantic Ocean.
Pure CBD cannabis oil derived from hemp contains only trace amounts of THC. Hemp is grown from specific cannabis varieties that naturally possess higher levels of CBD. These hemp stalks and hemp seeds produce organic hemp oil that is naturally rich in cannabidiol. Some genetic varieties of hemp contain higher concentrations of pure CBD than others.

By the 1930s, marijuana was banned in 24 states. The newly minted Federal Bureau of Narcotics launched a campaign against the drug, and newspapers fueled hysteria with headlines like the 1933 Los Angeles Examiner's "Murder Weed Found Up and Down the Coast — Deadly Marihuana Dope Plant Ready for Harvest That Means Enslavement of California Children." By 1937, Congress passed the Marihuana Tax Act, which effectively banned marijuana except for a few medicinal purposes, according to "Smoke Signals: A Social History of Marijuana – Medical, Recreational and Legal" (Scribner, 2012).
PTSD. My husband suffers chronic PTSD from active military service. We live not far from a large Army base and though my husband served with another counties military we hear stories constantly of family breakdowns over PTSD. It’s not a easy path but I’m hoping one day to find something to stop the endless trips to the psych ward. It’s just not right that those who serve come home to no government help.
Short-term use increases both minor and major adverse effects.[104] Common side effects include dizziness, feeling tired, vomiting, and hallucinations.[104] Long-term effects of cannabis are not clear.[106] Concerns including memory and cognition problems, risk of addiction, schizophrenia in young people, and the risk of children taking it by accident.[103]
New companies are already popping up, making products from Whole Plant extracts taken from high quality domestic or European Hemp plants with more complete Cannabinoid profiles and offering concentrations of CBD in their extracts similar to what is obtainable from strains such as Charlotte's Web. Charlotte's Web itself has recently been reclassified from Marijuana by the state of CO as a Hemp variety (story here) which will allow for the sales of Hemp based finishing products derived from it in all U.S. states, the same as other legal Hemp based CBD nutritional supplements that are currently being sold.
While very few clinical trials have explored the pain-relieving effects of CBD oil, a report published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews in 2018 examined the use of a variety of cannabis-based medicines and found they might be of some benefit in the treatment of chronic neuropathic pain. A type of pain triggered by damage to the somatosensory system (i.e., the system responsible for processing sensory stimuli), neuropathic pain often occurs in people with conditions like diabetes and multiple sclerosis.
^ Jump up to: a b Weinstein A, Livny A, Weizman A (2016). "Brain Imaging Studies on the Cognitive, Pharmacological and Neurobiological Effects of Cannabis in Humans: Evidence from Studies of Adult Users". Current Pharmaceutical Design. 22 (42): 6366–6379. doi:10.2174/1381612822666160822151323. PMID 27549374. 1)The studies reviewed so far demonstrated that chronic cannabis use has been associated with a volume reduction of the hippocampus...3)The overall conclusion arising from these studies is that recent cannabis users may experience subtle neurophysiological deficits while performing on working memory tasks, and that they compensate for these deficits by "working harder" by using additional brain regions to meet the demands of the task.
The glutamatergic system is integral to development and maintenance of neuropathic pain, and is responsible for generating secondary and tertiary hyperalgesia in migraine and fibromyalgia via NMDA mechanisms (Nicolodi et al 1998). Thus, it is important to note that cannabinoids presynaptically inhibit glutamate release (Shen et al 1996), THC produces 30%–40% reduction in NMDA responses, and THC is a neuroprotective antioxidant (Hampson et al 1998). Additionally, cannabinoids reduce hyperalgesia via inhibition of calcitonin gene-related peptide (Richardson et al 1998a). As for Substance P mechanisms, cannabinoids block capsaicin-induced hyperalgesia (Li et al 1999), and THC will do so at sub-psychoactive doses in experimental animals (Ko and Woods 1999). Among the noteworthy interactions with opiates and the endorphin/enkephalin system, THC has been shown to stimulate beta-endorphin production (Manzanares et al 1998), may allow opiate sparing in clinical application (Cichewicz et al 1999), prevents development of tolerance to and withdrawal from opiates (Cichewicz and Welch 2003), and rekindles opiate analgesia after a prior dosage has worn off (Cichewicz and McCarthy 2003). These are all promising attributes for an adjunctive agent in treatment of clinical chronic pain states.

Going forward, another emerging trend among recreational users are wellness lifestyles built around cannabis. This is certainly part of the influence of California’s new recreational marijuana market, which went online January 1, 2018. California is already an epicenter for health and wellness lifestyles and fads. Expect to see more of the same now that cannabis is completely legal.
The key is to effectively gauge exactly how much CBD oil it takes to start managing your pain. If you start off right away with a maximum dose of a 600 mg tincture, you will have no idea how much of the product it actually took to treat your condition, and how much you wasted (this is also important because you do not want to exceed dosage and end up developing a tolerance to the active cannabinoids).
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Sativex® (GW Pharmaceuticals) is an oromucosal whole cannabis-based spray combining a CB1 partial agonist (THC) with a cannabinoid system modulator (CBD), minor cannabinoids and terpenoids plus ethanol and propylene glycol excipients and peppermint flavoring (McPartland and Russo 2001; Russo and Guy 2006). It was approved by Health Canada in June 2005 for prescription for central neuropathic pain in multiple sclerosis, and in August 2007, it was additionally approved for treatment of cancer pain unresponsive to optimized opioid therapy. Sativex is a highly standardized pharmaceutical product derived from two Cannabis sativa chemovars following Good Agricultural Practice (GAP) (de Meijer 2004), yielding Tetranabinex® (predominantly-THC extract) and Nabidiolex® (predominantly-CBD extract) in a 1:1 ratio. Each 100 μL pump-action oromucosal Sativex spray actuation provides 2.7 mg of THC and 2.5 mg of CBD. Pharmacokinetic data are available, and indicate plasma half lives of 85 minutes for THC, 130 minutes for 11-hydroxy-THC and 100 minutes for CBD (Guy and Robson 2003). Sativex effects commence in 15–40 minutes, an interval that permits symptomatic dose titration. A very favorable adverse event profile has been observed in over 2500 patient years of exposure in over 2000 experimental subjects. Patients most often ascertain an individual stable dosage within 7–10 days that provides therapeutic relief without unwanted psychotropic effects (often in the range of 8–10 sprays per day). In all RCTs, Sativex was adjunctively added to optimal drug regimens in subjects with intractable symptoms, those often termed “untreatable.” Sativex is also available by named patient prescription in the UK and the Catalonia region of Spain. An Investigational New Drug (IND) application to study Sativex in advanced clinical trials in the USA was approved by the FDA in January 2006 in patients with intractable cancer pain.
By popular demand, we have also begun to carry several, high quality CBD pet products as well. For general purpose applications, we carry several, tasty tincture and oral spray options that are highly effective. Likewise, Pharma CBD capsules provide CBD purity via capsular ingestion. In addition, we have partnered with Therabis, the quality CBD maker of “Stop the Itch” and “Calm and Quiet”, the pet lovers’ ultimate go-to’s. Find these products by browsing our exclusive online inventory.
And without high-quality trials, experts don’t know how much is best for a given purpose. The staff at Roth’s dispensary told her, “Try some once or twice a day and see what happens.” (Half a dropper’s worth was a good amount for her.) One thing scientists feel confident about is that CBD is not dangerous. It won’t damage vital organs even at doses as high as 5,000 mg a day, Marcu says, and nobody has died from simply overdosing on a cannabis product.
^ Jump up to: a b Pamplona, Fabricio A.; da Silva, Lorenzo Rolim; Coan, Ana Carolina (12 September 2018). "Potential Clinical Benefits of CBD-Rich Cannabis Extracts Over Purified CBD in Treatment-Resistant Epilepsy: Observational Data Meta-analysis". Frontiers in Neurology. 9: 759. doi:10.3389/fneur.2018.00759. ISSN 1664-2295. PMC 6143706. PMID 30258398.

On November 6, 2012, the voters of Massachusetts approved Question 3, “An Initiative Petition for a Law for the Humanitarian Medical Use of Marijuana,” by 63 percent establishing legal protection for medical cannabis patients, caregivers, physicians and medical professionals, cultivators, and providers, some of which went into effect as of January 1, 2013.
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