^ Morales P, Hurst DP, Reggio PH (2017). Kinghorn AD, Falk H, Gibbons S, Kobayashi J, eds. "Molecular Targets of the Phytocannabinoids: A Complex Picture". Progress in the Chemistry of Organic Natural Products. Progress in the Chemistry of Organic Natural Products. Springer International Publishing. 103: 103–131. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-45541-9_4. ISBN 978-3-319-45539-6. PMC 5345356. PMID 28120232.
Republican Governor Eric Holcomb, with the help of Republican dominant General Assembly, passed the law on Wednesday. He signed into law Senate Enrolled Act 52 that explicitly legalizes CBD oil. This was done in response to the opinion set by Attorney General Curtis Hill. The opinion that essentially said that “Simply put, cannabidiol is a Schedule 1 controlled substance because marijuana is a Schedule 1 controlled substance,”
My husband considers CBD essential to his treatment plan. He suffers from TBI caused by HSE, dystonia (right side, plus neck and face), ankylosing spondylitis, spinal bone spurs and nerve impingement, CFS/ME, lifelong insomnia, and plain old arthritis; he’s convinced that CBD has been the key for being able to reduce (with the goal of eventually eliminating) his Klonopin as quickly as he has, and for managing the reduction of his pain script.
About 9% of those who experiment with marijuana eventually become dependent according to DSM-IV (1994) criteria.[77] A 2013 review estimates daily use is associated with a 10-20% rate of dependence.[41] The highest risk of cannabis dependence is found in those with a history of poor academic achievement, deviant behavior in childhood and adolescence, rebelliousness, poor parental relationships, or a parental history of drug and alcohol problems.[137] Of daily users, about 50% experience withdrawal upon cessation of use (i.e. are dependent), characterized by sleep problems, irritability, dysphoria, and craving.[116] Cannabis withdrawal is less severe than withdrawal from alcohol.[138]

100% organic quality is all we deal. Only select, organic growers and extraction processes are used in any product found here. Our pure CBD oil products and tinctures get to work quickly through direct, oral administration. As a capsular, daily supplement, we also have some of the best in quality CBD supplements for the easy, daily maintenance option. For those that prefer vaping, we are also proud to feature an entire line of 100% organic CBD oil vaping products including dab oils, vape oils, and even high quality vape kits.
Our pick for Best Customer Experience is Populum, an Arizona-based CBD brand that offers complete product transparency and great deals for shoppers. Populum offers a full spectrum CBD oil in 250mg, 500mg, and 1000mg concentrations. The product is made with cold-pressed orange oil for a light citrus taste, as well as grapeseed and coconut oils for added flavors. Populum also offers a cooling topical salve that relaxes aching joints and muscles, as well as a pet oil for dogs and cats. Additionally, the CBD oil, topical salve, and pet oil are packaged in an inexpensive ‘Starter Kit’ designed for first-time users.
Short-term use increases both minor and major adverse effects.[104] Common side effects include dizziness, feeling tired, vomiting, and hallucinations.[104] Long-term effects of cannabis are not clear.[106] Concerns including memory and cognition problems, risk of addiction, schizophrenia in young people, and the risk of children taking it by accident.[103]
This guide is an introduction to anyone looking to inform themselves about the reality of cannabis. It covers basic information about the marijuana plant, cannabis preparations, and the crucial elements of plant anatomy and science. This guide to marijuana also gives an overview of the most popular medical and recreational uses of cannabis. It offers a survey of the most important medical cannabis research while highlighting emerging trends in the legal cannabis market. The guide also introduces those new to cannabis to the many ways to consume marijuana, and much more.
The FDA relies on applicants and scientific investigators to conduct research. Our role, as outlined in the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, is to review data submitted to the FDA in a marketing application to determine whether a proposed drug product meets the statutory standards for approval. Additional information concerning research on the medical use of marijuana is available from the National Institutes of Health, particularly the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and NIDA.
     CBD content in Hemp oil, when extracted from the proper strains, can be very high as Hemp plants are now the very strains that are being used to breed high CBD levels back into Cannabis after years of selective recreational breeding for high THC values. Well known strains such Charlotte's Web are hybrids that were selected from crosses with High CBD Hemp varietals and those Hemp genetics are what account for the new High CBD Strains of Marijuana and commercial Hemp that have and are being developed.
There are approximately 60 unique cannabinoids in cannabis plants, which can be classified as hemp plants or marijuana plants (there’s a difference!). CBD is one of them and is the second-most prevalent cannabinoid found in the plant; THC is another. This distinction is absolutely critical to understand because THC is the cannabinoid responsible for the “high” produced by traditional marijuana; it’s where the negative connotations and associations generally begin.
There are thousands of unique varieties of hemp. The cultivars used for CBD oil contain significantly higher concentrations of CBD than others. Using these uniquely potent plants, it is possible to extract cannabis oil that contains significant levels of cannabidiol, as well as essential vitamins, minerals, fatty acids, terpenes, flavonoids, and other non-psychoactive cannabinoids.

A 2012 study reported that, “systemic and intrathecal administration of cannabidiol (CBD), a major nonpsychoactive component of marijuana, and its modified derivatives significantly suppress chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain without causing apparent analgesic tolerance…These cannabinoids may represent a novel class of therapeutic agents for the treatment of chronic pain and other diseases…”

In 1988, the first cannabinoid receptor was identified (CB1) (Howlett et al 1988) and in 1993, a second was described (CB2) (Munro et al 1993). Both are 7-domain G-protein coupled receptors affecting cyclic-AMP, but CB1 is more pervasive throughout the body, with particular predilection to nociceptive areas of the central nervous system and spinal cord (Herkenham et al 1990; Hohmann et al 1999), as well as the peripheral nervous system (Fox et al 2001; Dogrul et al 2003) wherein synergy of activity between peripheral and central cannabinoid receptor function has been demonstrated (Dogrul et al 2003). CB2, while commonly reported as confined to lymphoid and immune tissues, is also proving to be an important mediator for suppressing both pain and inflammatory processes (Mackie 2006). Following the description of cannabinoid receptors, endogenous ligands for these were discovered: anandamide (arachidonylethanolamide, AEA) in 1992 in porcine brain (Devane et al 1992), and 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) in 1995 in canine gut tissue (Mechoulam et al 1995) (Figure 1). These endocannabinoids both act as retrograde messengers on G-protein coupled receptors, are synthesized on demand, and are especially active on glutamatergic and GABA-ergic synapses. Together, the cannabinoid receptors, their endogenous ligands (“endocannabinoids”) and metabolizing enzymes comprise the endocannabinoid system (ECS) (Di Marzo et al 1998), whose functions have been prosaically termed to be “relax, eat, sleep, forget and protect” (p. 528). The endocannabinoid system parallels and interacts at many points with the other major endogenous pain control systems: endorphin/enkephalin, vanilloid/transient receptor potential (TRPV), and inflammatory. Interestingly, our first knowledge of each pain system has derived from investigation of natural origin analgesic plants, respectively: cannabis (Cannabis sativa, C. indica) (THC, CBD and others), opium poppy (Papaver somniferun) (morphine, codeine), chile peppers (eg, Capsicum annuum, C. frutescens, C. chinense) (capsaicin) and willow bark (Salix spp.) (salicylic acid, leading to acetylsalicylic acid, or aspirin). Interestingly, THC along with AEA and 2-AG, are all partial agonists at the CB1 receptor. Notably, no endocannabinoid has ever been administered to humans, possibly due to issues of patentability and lack of commercial feasibility (Raphael Mechoulam, pers comm 2007). For an excellent comprehensive review of the endocannabinoid system, see Pacher et al (2006), while Walker and Huang have provided a key review of antinociceptive effects of cannabinoids in models of acute and persistent pain (Walker and Huang 2002).

Thanks to the passing of the 2018 Farm Bill, zero THC CBD is not illegal in any state in the USA. That’s right; according to federal law, it is legal in all 50 states. That said, since the change in law is relatively new, some states might not fully embrace CBD.This should change with the new bill, however, it may take time. Below we outline four different jurisdictional categories based on pre-2018 Farm Bill practices.
Sublingual CBD Oils – also known as CBD Tinctures or CBD Hemp Oil – are the most popular type of CBD products, because of their high bioavailability and rapid absorption. There are many other kinds of products as well, including CBD edibles, CBD topicals, and even CBD-infused Coffee. CBD products have gained immense popularity in health and wellness circles thanks to their natural support of our endocannabinoid system (ECS).
Hemp oil or Hemp Oil contains essential fatty acids, including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), that are required for brain development. DHA is crucial to the health of the brain as well as the retina of the eye, particularly in the first year of life. Mothers who supplement with hemp oil during pregnancy may provide brain- and eye-protective benefits for the developing baby.
In short, the results of the survey (which were published in the Journal of Pain Research) showed that roughly 42% and 46% (respectively) of participants claimed they were able to use cannabis in place of traditional medical to effectively treat their specific medical ailment. So if you’re wondering how to know if you need CBD for pain, remember that you’re certainly not alone.
Generalized pain, for instance, has dozens upon dozens of high profile research and clinical studies that have been carried out in universities and laboratories around the globe. One of the most well-publicized of these studies took place back in 2008, in which results determined that “cannabinoid analgesics (pain relievers) have generally been well tolerated in clinical trials … with acceptable adverse event profiles (meaning acceptable effectiveness for practical use).
Hemp oil can be used for the treatment of minor health ailments and as a dietary supplement for the promotion of general good health. Hemp oil is considered one of the most useful natural supplements for the body due to its ability to provide essential fatty acids to humans that we would not be able to manufacture on our own. However, you should also be aware of potential side effects associated with hemp oil. As such, be sure to speak to a medical professional for more information on hemp oil effects.

It is hard to determine whether marijuana alone can cause cancer because many people who smoke marijuana also smoke cigarettes and use other drugs. Marijuana smoke contains some of the same cancer-causing compounds as tobacco, sometimes in higher concentrations. Studies show that someone who smokes five joints per day may be taking in as many cancer-causing chemicals as someone who smokes a full pack of cigarettes. Moreover, marijuana smokers usually inhale more deeply and hold their breath longer than tobacco smokers, which increases the lungs' exposure to carcinogenic smoke. Thus, puff for puff, smoking marijuana may increase the risk of cancer more than smoking tobacco does.
Yes, under licence from the Department of Health, certain varieties of the hemp plant (Cannabis sativa) are legally grown for a range of uses including for food and feed. The varieties of hemp permitted to be grown in Europe are those listed in the EU’s ‘Common Catalogue of Varieties of Agricultural Plant Species’ and for which the tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content does not exceed 0.2% (Regulation (EU) No 1307/2013).
When the researchers evaluated the effects of PET compared with THC on inflammation pathways in mouse brains, they finally found a difference. Although PET’s psychoactive effects were less potent, it reduced certain molecules associated with inflammation, says study author Michael Schafroth, currently a postdoctoral researcher at The Scripps Research Institute.
Cannabis is a generic term used to denote the several psychoactive preparations of the plant Cannabis sativa. The major psychoactive consituent in cannabis is ∆-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Compounds which are structurally similar to THC are referred to as cannabinoids. In addition, a number of recently identified compounds that differ structurally from cannabinoids nevertheless share many of their pharmacological properties. The Mexican term 'marijuana' is frequently used in referring to cannabis leaves or other crude plant material in many countries. The unpollinated female plants are called hashish. Cannabis oil (hashish oil) is a concentrate of cannabinoids obtained by solvent extraction of the crude plant material or of the resin.
In this edition of Cannabis Conversations, Project CBD Director, Martin A. Lee, discusses the benefits of CBD, the "entourage effect" and the microbiome with Dr. Ethan Russo. A neurologist, scientist, and widely published author, Dr. Russo is currently the director of research and development at the International Cannabis and Cannabinoids Institute in Prague (www.icci.science).
A a bipartisan group of lawmakers sent a letter to the FDA last week, urging immediate action on the matter. A series of recent actions in New York City, Maine and Ohio cracking down on the sale of CBD foods and drinks have “spurred a tremendous amount of confusion among product manufacturers, hemp farmers, and consumers of these products,” said the letter, as reported by Weedmaps, an information community website for businesses and consumers.
     2015 and beyond will bring many exciting changes to the current High CBD Hemp oil market. The Hemp plant once again being cultivated domestically for the first time in decades, will allow for companies producing Cannabidiol Rich Hemp products to source their base material from domestic suppliers, raising the bar on many of the current offerings that are using imported Hemp base from Europe from commercial strains that just happened to have decent CBD levels rather than strains actually developed to have high CBD levels, that are grown out seedlessly like traditional Marijuana for the strongest concentrations of Cannabindoids, such as those found within Marijuana oil.
While physicians have access to tools to deal with pain, chronic pain is resistant to a quick fix. Interventional procedures, surgery, physical therapy and pain medications have historically been the go-to therapies to address pain. Historically, because they are accessible and inexpensive, narcotics – particularly opioid narcotics—have also been one of the go-to therapies.
After revisions to cannabis scheduling in the UK, the government moved cannabis back from a class C to a class B drug. A purported reason was the appearance of high potency cannabis. They believe skunk accounts for between 70 and 80% of samples seized by police[162] (despite the fact that skunk can sometimes be incorrectly mistaken for all types of herbal cannabis).[163][164] Extracts such as hashish and hash oil typically contain more THC than high potency cannabis flowers.[165]

Cannador® (IKF-Berlin) is a cannabis extract administered in oral capsules, with differing figures as to THC:CBD ratios (reviewed in (Russo and Guy 2006)), generally approximately 2:1. Two pharmacokinetic studies on possibly related material have been reported (Nadulski et al 2005a; Nadulski et al 2005b). In a Phase III RCT employing Cannador in spasticity in multiple sclerosis (MS) (CAMS) (Zajicek et al 2003) (Table 1), no improvement was noted in the Ashworth Scale, but benefit was observed in spasm-associated pain on subjective measures. Both Marinol and Cannador produced reductions in pain scores in long-term follow-up (Zajicek et al 2005). Cannador was assayed in postherpetic neuralgia in 65 subjects with no observed benefit (Ernst et al 2005) (Table 1), and in 30 post-operative pain subjects (CANPOP) without opiates, with slight benefits, but prominent psychoactive sequelae (Holdcroft et al 2006) (Table 1).


Answering the question “what is CBD oil” would be incomplete without mentioning the many CBD oil benefits. In addition to positively affecting the endocannabinoid system, CBD has been the focus of more than 23,000 published studies about cannabinoids in relation to various medical indications including anxiety, epilepsy, inflammation, cancer and chronic pain to name few. You can even find CBD for pets that is specially formulated to safely allow your pets to experience the natural benefits of CBD. For a more comprehensive look at these and other studies, visit our medical research and education page.
CBD strains can be consumed just as you would THC strains. You can smoke or vaporize CBD-rich flower, eat a CBD-infused edible, swallow a CBD oil capsule, apply a CBD lotion, or use a CBD tincture sublingually. Hemp products also contain CBD, though it is a less efficient source and lacks the beneficial chemical diversity of cannabis-derived CBD products (more on that here).
In Buddhism, cannabis is generally regarded as an intoxicant and may be a hindrance to development of meditation and clear awareness. In ancient Germanic culture, Cannabis was associated with the Norse love goddess, Freya.[121][122] An anointing oil mentioned in Exodus is, by some translators, said to contain Cannabis.[123] Sufis have used Cannabis in a spiritual context since the 13th century CE.[124]
As one of the original CBD manufacturers, Green Roads reputation truly precedes them, and their pharmacist formulated manufacturing process is why we selected them as the best quality CBD oil on the market. They offer a range of CBD oil concentrations (100mg, 250mg, 350mg, 550mg, 1000mg, 1500mg, and 3,500mg) all of which allow you to view ingredients and test results from a 3rd party testing facility via a QR code on the box.
Various strains of "medical marijuana" are found to have a significant variation in the ratios of CBD-to-THC, and are known to contain other non-psychotropic cannabinoids.[61] Any psychoactive marijuana, regardless of its CBD content, is derived from the flower (or bud) of the genus Cannabis. Non-psychoactive hemp (also commonly-termed industrial hemp), regardless of its CBD content, is any part of the cannabis plant, whether growing or not, containing a ∆-9 tetrahydrocannabinol concentration of no more than 0.3% on a dry-weight basis.[62] Certain standards are required for legal growing, cultivating, and producing the hemp plant. The Colorado Industrial Hemp Program registers growers of industrial hemp and samples crops to verify that the dry-weight THC concentration does not exceed 0.3%.[62]
If you are looking for an alternative substance in order to relieve any sort of pains, just ask real people who have made the switch from pharmaceutical drugs and opted to use CBD oils instead. They have favored and claimed that products such as Medix CBD chews, oils, and creams have significantly seemed to improve their ailments, all while having no known side effects up to this date.
Yet even those who believe in this power recognize that CBD medicine remains largely unexplored: Treatments are not systematized, many products are not standardized or tested, and patients (or their parents) are generally left to figure out dosing on their own. While some suppliers and dispensaries test the CBD and THC levels of their products, many do not. “We really need more research, and more evidence,” Kogan says. “This has to be done scientifically.”
Hemp oil can be used for the treatment of minor health ailments and as a dietary supplement for the promotion of general good health. Hemp oil is considered one of the most useful natural supplements for the body due to its ability to provide essential fatty acids to humans that we would not be able to manufacture on our own. However, you should also be aware of potential side effects associated with hemp oil. As such, be sure to speak to a medical professional for more information on hemp oil effects.

As for phytocannabinoid-rich hemp oil, due to the presence of the hemp plant’s cannabinoids there are many additional uses and benefits with practically zero side effects. The most common use of this type of hemp oil is for chronic pain management, but many people also use it to treat some symptoms of cancer, among other diseases and conditions. Even the Food and Drug Administration recently approved a new CBD-based prescription medication.
The passing of SB 218 through the Kentucky legislature created a new subsection of KRS 260.850m to 260.289, in which the Industrial Hemp Advisory Board outlines the purpose of an industrial hemp research program, establish license provisions, and create new requirements and license application procedures. This state’s approach is for the potential medical and industrial applications.
Scott Shannon, M.D., assistant clinical professor at the University of Colorado, recently sifted through patient charts from his four-doctor practice to document CBD’s effects on anxiety. His study, as yet unpublished, found “a fairly rapid decrease in anxiety scores that appears to persist for months,” he says. But he says he can’t discount a placebo effect, especially since “there’s a lot of hype right now.”
Pros: This item is organic and produced in the USA. The appearance of the oil is very much like extra virgin olive oil, as it should be. It has a green shade indicating that it is full spectrum and unrefined. Nature’s Blueprint also added natural peppermint to make it more palatable. I think it tastes fine straight from the dropper, but it can also be added to a smoothie of some sort or maybe hot tea? I appreciate that it has a clear label for the supplement facts and dosing. If you ever buy something that doesn’t, I certainly wouldn’t take it.
CBD stands for cannabidiol. Cannabidiol is one of over 80 chemical compounds found in the cannabis plant, called cannabinoids. Cannabinoids are naturally occurring and each one is uniquely different from the next. We are still just beginning to understand the many benefits that cannabinoids have how they interact with our bodies. CBD is non-psychoactive, unlike the more commonly known cannabinoid, THC. THC is known for the “high” feeling. You won’t feel any psychoactive, high effects when consuming CBD by itself. However, the “entourage effect” states that a combination of cannabinoids will work better together than a cannabinoid by itself. Essentially, when CBD is combined with low doses of THC and other cannabinoids like CBG and CBN in a product, it will work better than if that product contained just CBD by itself. This is where the term “full-spectrum” comes from. CBD products with the full-spectrum label are stating that other cannabinoids present and are implying that product may be more effective.
So, your ECS signals to your brain that you’re in pain. And, when your condition is chronic, it’s a constant stream of signals to your brain about the pain. What CBD Pain Cream does is binds to those receptors that are signaling the pain to your brain. † And, it calms that reaction to help erase the pain. So, in other words, CBD Chiro-Cream actually stops the pain, rather than suppressing it like most pain killers. † And, the fact that CBD Pain Cream works with your body means it’s better and healthier for you. All you have to do is apply it topically to the areas that hurt you and you’ll see a reduction in pain fast.
CBD oil is extracted from the industrial hemp plant, Cannabis Sativa. The seeds of the hemp plant are pressed until the oils are released. This is what makes cannabidiol different from and less psychoactive than THC, which is extracted from the marijuana plant, Cannabis Indica. The industrial hemp oil has traces of THC in it, about 3% in potency, not sufficient in causing a ‘high’. Despite its non-addictive nature, CBD oil may require a medical prescription for legal acquisition in some provinces.

So is CBD legal? If we’re talking about hemp-derived CBD, then the answer is yes. Now, the keyword here is “hemp-derived.” Because CBD from hemp has no psychoactive effects, the purchase, sales, or possession of hemp CBD products are completely legal in all 50 States. Because hemp is sometimes confused with the marijuana plant, there is still some stigma towards hemp-derived CBD, but from a legal perspective, hemp-derived CBD is completely legal and enjoys the rights of any other legal product.
The cannabis plant contains a range of cannabinoids – some of which are psychoactive (affect the mind) and some not. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) or, more precisely, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), is a psychoactive constituent of the hemp plant. As THC can cause symptoms associated with psychosis, products that contain THC are subject to strict controls under the Misuse of Drugs Acts 1977 to 2016.

It’s also important to select CBD oil products based on your concentration preferences. Some forms of CBD oil – such as vapors and tinctures – normally have higher-than-average concentrations, whereas sprays and topicals tend to have lower concentrations. Remember: higher concentration means more pronounced effects, but not necessarily mean higher quality.
×