Glass Bongs are basically a water filtration gadget that is utilized to consume tobacco, herbs or cannabis. It looks nearly in the state of a hookah or shisha with the exception of the way that it is effectively compact anyplace. The real significance of the term bong originates from Thai word "Baung" a round and hollow smoking tube made of bamboo or wood.
Cannabis (/ˈkænəbɪs/) is a genus of flowering plants in the family Cannabaceae. The number of species within the genus is disputed. Three species may be recognized: Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica, and Cannabis ruderalis; C. ruderalis may be included within C. sativa; all three may be treated as subspecies of a single species, C. sativa; or C. sativa may be accepted as a single undivided species. The genus is widely accepted as being indigenous to and originating from Central Asia, with some researchers also including upper South Asia in its origin.
CBD edibles are foods and beverages infused with CBD for oral consumption, and they are immensely popular thanks to their delicious taste as well as their soothing effects. From CBD fruit rolls to CBD-infused coffee, CBD edibles include a wide array of shapes, dosages, and mouthwatering flavors. CBD edibles offer an easy and discreet way to never forget your daily dose of CBD. Besides their fun and fruity taste and appearance, Green Roads CBD Edibles offer all the benefits of CBD in a convenient 30-day supply so you’ll never run out whether you need a short-term fix or long-term relief.
The FDA’s refusal to allow companies to market CBD as a dietary supplement is based on the fact that federal classification as a dietary supplement requires that a substance has not been authorized for investigation as a new drug or medicine. Since Epidiolex has been studied in clinical trials by GW Pharmaceuticals going back several years now and was granted orphan drug status by the FDA in 2013, CBD cannot therefore be classified as a dietary supplement. Or so the FDA says. But cannabis companies are arguing that they started marketing CBD as a dietary supplement before there were any drug trials involving CBD, such that they should still be allowed to claim dietary supplement status for their products. Thus far however, the FDA isn’t budging on this issue.
Cannabidiol, or CBD for short, is a natural phyto-cannabinoid (or plant-based chemical compound) found in cannabis plants, including hemp and marijuana. Unlike other cannabinoids — namely tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC — CBD does not produce any psychoactive effects, and will actually counteract these effects to a degree. CBD will induce feelings of sleepiness; for this reason, it can be an effective soporific for people who struggle to fall and/or remain asleep due to insomnia and other sleep disorders.
The omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids found in hemp oil are classified as polyunsaturated meaning that they are a healthy dietary fat. These compounds are extremely beneficial to the body and are ideal for human nutrition, except when taken in excess. Overindulgence of polyunsaturated fatty acids has previously been linked to cardiac dysfunction, cancer growth, and an increased susceptibility to bacterial infections.
Several hundred million years ago mosses and their kin went one way, evolutionarily speaking, and the lineage of trees and flowering plants went the other. Somehow, in the vast expanse of geologic time that followed, a few members of these distantly related groups in the plant kingdom copied one another in making something of great interest to humans: the psychoactive chemical, or cannabinoid, that gets people high.
In recent years however, with increasing state legalization of cannabis and a burgeoning multibillion-dollar cannabis industry, US farmers have increasingly lobbied to remove federal restrictions against growing hemp. The Agricultural Act of 2014 (aka the 2014 Farm Bill) signed by President Obama set the stage for this to happen by loosened restrictions on hemp, allowing universities and state agriculture departments to grow it for research purposes. Now the 2018 Farm Bill opens those gates more broadly, allowing licensed farmers to grow hemp and transport it across state lines based on agreements and regulations to be established between states and the federal government.
CBD Pain Cream is a new topical product that reduces pain and inflammation that get in the way of everyday life. Are you tired of waking up in the morning and having to deal with pain right off the bat? What would it be like to wake up feeling pain-free, refreshed, and energized for the day ahead? Don’t let pain run your life! Use natural CBD to relieve pain so you can get back to what’s important. CBD comes from cannabis, but don’t worry. This product is perfectly legal and safe to use. Unlike the THC compound, the CBD is non-psychoactive or mind-altering. This means you get all the health benefits of cannabis with none of the side effects. To order your free trial of CBD Pain Cream, click the button below!
Indoor marijuana grows provide the most control over growing conditions. With a simple setup including a tent, proper lighting, and an air circulation system, home marijuana growers can produce consistent yields. Both soil and hydro systems can be utilized for indoor marijuana grows. Soil setups are generally cheaper and more forgiving, but hydro systems tend to be more common.
The key is to effectively gauge exactly how much CBD oil it takes to start managing your pain. If you start off right away with a maximum dose of a 600 mg tincture, you will have no idea how much of the product it actually took to treat your condition, and how much you wasted (this is also important because you do not want to exceed dosage and end up developing a tolerance to the active cannabinoids).
Karl W. Hillig, a graduate student in the laboratory of long-time Cannabis researcher Paul G. Mahlberg at Indiana University, conducted a systematic investigation of genetic, morphological, and chemotaxonomic variation among 157 Cannabis accessions of known geographic origin, including fiber, drug, and feral populations. In 2004, Hillig and Mahlberg published a chemotaxonomic analysis of cannabinoid variation in their Cannabis germplasm collection. They used gas chromatography to determine cannabinoid content and to infer allele frequencies of the gene that controls CBD and THC production within the studied populations, and concluded that the patterns of cannabinoid variation support recognition of C. sativa and C. indica as separate species, but not C. ruderalis. The authors assigned fiber/seed landraces and feral populations from Europe, Central Asia, and Turkey to C. sativa. Narrow-leaflet and wide-leaflet drug accessions, southern and eastern Asian hemp accessions, and feral Himalayan populations were assigned to C. indica. In 2005, Hillig published a genetic analysis of the same set of accessions (this paper was the first in the series, but was delayed in publication), and proposed a three-species classification, recognizing C. sativa, C. indica, and (tentatively) C. ruderalis. In his doctoral dissertation published the same year, Hillig stated that principal components analysis of phenotypic (morphological) traits failed to differentiate the putative species, but that canonical variates analysis resulted in a high degree of discrimination of the putative species and infraspecific taxa. Another paper in the series on chemotaxonomic variation in the terpenoid content of the essential oil of Cannabis revealed that several wide-leaflet drug strains in the collection had relatively high levels of certain sesquiterpene alcohols, including guaiol and isomers of eudesmol, that set them apart from the other putative taxa. Hillig concluded that the patterns of genetic, morphological, and chemotaxonomic variation support recognition of C. sativa and C. indica as separate species. He also concluded there is little support to treat C. ruderalis as a separate species from C. sativa at this time, but more research on wild and weedy populations is needed because they were underrepresented in their collection.
In 1988, the first cannabinoid receptor was identified (CB1) (Howlett et al 1988) and in 1993, a second was described (CB2) (Munro et al 1993). Both are 7-domain G-protein coupled receptors affecting cyclic-AMP, but CB1 is more pervasive throughout the body, with particular predilection to nociceptive areas of the central nervous system and spinal cord (Herkenham et al 1990; Hohmann et al 1999), as well as the peripheral nervous system (Fox et al 2001; Dogrul et al 2003) wherein synergy of activity between peripheral and central cannabinoid receptor function has been demonstrated (Dogrul et al 2003). CB2, while commonly reported as confined to lymphoid and immune tissues, is also proving to be an important mediator for suppressing both pain and inflammatory processes (Mackie 2006). Following the description of cannabinoid receptors, endogenous ligands for these were discovered: anandamide (arachidonylethanolamide, AEA) in 1992 in porcine brain (Devane et al 1992), and 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) in 1995 in canine gut tissue (Mechoulam et al 1995) (Figure 1). These endocannabinoids both act as retrograde messengers on G-protein coupled receptors, are synthesized on demand, and are especially active on glutamatergic and GABA-ergic synapses. Together, the cannabinoid receptors, their endogenous ligands (“endocannabinoids”) and metabolizing enzymes comprise the endocannabinoid system (ECS) (Di Marzo et al 1998), whose functions have been prosaically termed to be “relax, eat, sleep, forget and protect” (p. 528). The endocannabinoid system parallels and interacts at many points with the other major endogenous pain control systems: endorphin/enkephalin, vanilloid/transient receptor potential (TRPV), and inflammatory. Interestingly, our first knowledge of each pain system has derived from investigation of natural origin analgesic plants, respectively: cannabis (Cannabis sativa, C. indica) (THC, CBD and others), opium poppy (Papaver somniferun) (morphine, codeine), chile peppers (eg, Capsicum annuum, C. frutescens, C. chinense) (capsaicin) and willow bark (Salix spp.) (salicylic acid, leading to acetylsalicylic acid, or aspirin). Interestingly, THC along with AEA and 2-AG, are all partial agonists at the CB1 receptor. Notably, no endocannabinoid has ever been administered to humans, possibly due to issues of patentability and lack of commercial feasibility (Raphael Mechoulam, pers comm 2007). For an excellent comprehensive review of the endocannabinoid system, see Pacher et al (2006), while Walker and Huang have provided a key review of antinociceptive effects of cannabinoids in models of acute and persistent pain (Walker and Huang 2002).
Been using product for a few days now ,I'm about one my 6th dose. I noticed today my hand from nerve damage has not dropped anything or felt numb,or even trembled. Even axienty has been managable. However I'm taking 250mgs.I boosted it up to 500mgs.3 or 4 times daily ,of 250mgs. It seems to have best effect atleast today.It's cold and rainy which,is better than snow ,is my most hightened pain days.Today 4/24/18. Has been a God send! 1 pain and axienty day free ...Makes me a believer! I stand by this products effectiveness. Hope my review helps another soul,that lives with same aliments.
Medical marijuana in the U.S. is controlled at the state level. Per federal law, cannabis is illegal as noted in the Controlled Substances Act, but the federal government has stated they will not actively prosecute patients and caregivers complying with state medical marijuana laws. However, use of medical marijuana outside of the state laws for illegal use or trafficking will not be tolerated by state or federal government.
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“Simply put, cannabidiol is a schedule 1 controlled substance because marijuana is a schedule 1 controlled substance. Although it is a relatively new phenomenon, after thoroughly tracking the language of the Indiana law defining ‘marijuana’ it is evident that cannabidiol is now and historically has been derived from ‘a part of the plant genus cannabis.'”
After ignoring the CBD oil on the shelves of health food stores for months; the state excise police in Indiana began raiding stores recently for CBD oil. According to the State Excise Police, CBD is considered the same as marijuana in the state of Indiana. Even thought that makes zero sense since it does not have any psychoactive chemicals in it at all (or so little as to not count). Thus it is idiocy but must be coming from the top as the Governor is the head cheese they would not be raiding unless he had given the OK. So it is stupid and a waste of taxpayer money. Hitting the health food stores hard; and people will just pay a little more to order it online. CBD oil works for a variety of health conditions. It is big pharma that is trying to keep it off the shelves. But in the end they will lose this one.
Szaflarski explains that cannabis contains about 500 different compounds, some of which—including CBD and THC—interact with certain chemical receptors in the human nervous system. But unlike THC, CBD isn’t psychoactive—meaning it doesn’t cause any kind of a high. Despite that, the US Drug Enforcement Agency classifies CBD (and other cannabis compounds) as schedule I substances, making their sale illegal in many states.
I have arthritis in many joints of one foot and at times it can be very painful walking. Ordered some 500mg CBD pain cream. It arrived within a few days. It was amazing how quickly I felt relief after I rubbed it in. Slight odor but not objectionable. I cannot use products with camphor, as they make my skin feel like it is on fire. This is great! Thank you!
That headache study cites research linking CBD to lower rates of anxiety. (Since anxiety often produces headaches, the authors say, CBD could be a plausible headache remedy if those anti-anxiety benefits are legit.) Grant says he’s looked at the literature on CBD and anxiety, and some of it is enticing. He mentions a Brazilian study, for instance, that found people with a fear of public speaking felt less anxiety and less discomfort about their phobia after taking CBD, compared to those who took a placebo.
CBD’s action within the brain and body is quite complicated. To date, scientists have discovered more than a dozen different mechanisms of action, or ways that CBD affect us. It’s very likely that the beneficial effects of CBD are a result of the total of its activation of all of these biological pathways, not a single one in particular. Much more research is needed to fully understand the mechanisms by which CBD relieves ailments such as anxiety and seizures.
Similarly, while Sativex and smoked cannabis have not been employed in the same clinical trial, comparisons of side effect profiles can be made on the basis of SAFEX studies of Sativex for over a year and up to several years in MS and other types of neuropathic pain (Russo 2006b; Wade et al 2006), and government-approved research programs employing standardized herbal cannabis from Canada for chronic pain (Lynch et al 2006) and the Netherlands for general conditions (Janse et al 2004; Gorter et al 2005) over a period of several months or more. As is evident in Figure 2 (Figure 2), all adverse events are more frequently reported with herbal cannabis, except for nausea and dizziness, both early and usually transiently reported with Sativex (see (Russo 2006b) for additional discussion).
Food and beverage products containing CBD were introduced in the United States in 2017. Similar to energy drinks and protein bars which may contain vitamin or herbal additives, food and beverage items can be infused with CBD as an alternative means of ingesting the substance. In the United States, numerous products are marketed as containing CBD, but in reality contain little or none. Some companies marketing CBD-infused food products with claims that are similar to the effects of prescription drugs have received warning letters from the Food and Drug Administration for making unsubstantiated health claims. In February 2019, the New York City Department of Health announced plans to fine restaurants that sell food or drinks containing CBD, beginning in October 2019.
While there are more unknowns than knowns at this point, Grant says he doesn’t discount all the anecdotal CBD reports. “You hear somebody say, ‘Hey, I gave this to myself and my kid and we feel a lot better,’ and we should never dismiss that kind of information,” he says. He points out that many modern medicines were discovered when researchers followed up on exactly this sort of human trial-and-error evidence. “But we still need to do the studies that confirm whether all the good things are true, and how much to give, and how to give it,” he says. “These are all questions that need to be answered.”
The clinical trials performed with Sativex have recently been assessed in two independent review articles (Barnes 2006; Pérez 2006). In a Phase II clinical trial in 20 patients with neurogenic symptoms (Wade et al 2003), Tetranabinex, Nabidiolex, and Sativex were tested in a double-blind RCT vs placebo (Table 1). Significant improvement was seen with both Tetranabinex and Sativex on pain (especially neuropathic), but post-hoc analysis showed symptom control was best with Sativex (p < 0.0001), with less intoxication than with THC-predominant extract.
μ-Opioid receptor agonists (opioids) (e.g., morphine, heroin, hydrocodone, oxycodone, opium, kratom) α2δ subunit-containing voltage-dependent calcium channels blockers (gabapentinoids) (e.g., gabapentin, pregabalin, phenibut) AMPA receptor antagonists (e.g., perampanel) CB1 receptor agonists (cannabinoids) (e.g., THC, cannabis) Dopamine receptor agonists (e.g., levodopa) Dopamine releasing agents (e.g., amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDMA, mephedrone) Dopamine reuptake inhibitors (e.g., cocaine, methylphenidate) GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulators (e.g., barbiturates, benzodiazepines, carbamates, ethanol (alcohol) (alcoholic drink), inhalants, nonbenzodiazepines, quinazolinones) GHB (sodium oxybate) and analogues Glucocorticoids (corticosteroids) (e.g., dexamethasone, prednisone) nACh receptor agonists (e.g., nicotine, tobacco, arecoline, areca nut) Nitric oxide prodrugs (e.g., alkyl nitrites (poppers)) NMDA receptor antagonists (e.g., DXM, ketamine, methoxetamine, nitrous oxide, phencyclidine, inhalants) Orexin receptor antagonists (e.g., suvorexant)
Doctors advise pregnant women not to use any drugs because they might harm the growing fetus. Although one animal study has linked marijuana use to loss of the fetus very early in pregnancy, two studies in humans found no association between marijuana use and early pregnancy loss. More research is necessary to fully understand the effects of marijuana use on pregnancy.
In June 2018, the FDA approved the drug Epidiolex, an oral preparation of pure CBD for treatment of two rare and severe forms of epilepsy in children. The drug is made by the GW Pharmaceutical Company and was tested in three randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials, including 516 patients. It was found to be effective in reducing the frequency of seizures.
In December 2013, Uruguay became the first country to legalize growing, sale and use of cannabis. After a long delay in implementing the retail component of the law, in 2017 sixteen pharmacies were authorized to sell cannabis commercially. On June 19, 2018, the Canadian Senate passed a bill and the Prime Minister announced the effective legalization date as October 17, 2018. Canada is the second nation to legalize the drug.
Lisa Hamilton, a jeweler and doula in Brooklyn, NY, knows about the side effects. She recently tried CBD for the shoulder pain that plagued her five years after an accident. Her doctor certified that she was in chronic pain, which under New York State law allowed her to buy from a state dispensary. One Friday, she swallowed two 10-mg capsules, the amount recommended at the dispensary, then took another two on Saturday. “By Sunday, it felt like I’d gotten hit by a truck. Every muscle and joint ached,” Hamilton says. She cut back to one pill a day the following week, but still felt hungover. She stopped after that.
More recent studies have focused on the mechanisms behind the schizophrenia–cannabis interaction. Epstein and Kumra (2014) tested the effect of cannabis on executive control of attention and cognitive function by comparing scores on the Attention Network Test among people with early-onset schizophrenia (EOS) and cannabis use disorder, only EOS, only cannabis use disorder, and controls. They found that the first group in particular had less efficient executive control of attention compared with those who had only EOS. They also found a smaller right caudal anterior cingulate cortex in subjects with EOS and cannabis use disorder. However, it is presently unclear whether this means that the smaller cortex surface leads to deficits in self-regulation and heavy cannabis use or if the direction of causation is in the opposite direction. More recent studies have suggested gene–environment correlation between cannabis use and schizophrenia in that the increased risk of schizophrenia after heavy and consistent cannabis use may be moderated by a shared gene that may explain part of the association (Power et al., 2014).
In the United States, cannabis is overall the number four value crop, and is number one or two in many states including California, New York and Florida, averaging $3,000 per pound ($6,600/kg). Some believe it generates an estimated $36 billion market. Some have argued that this estimate is methodologically flawed, and makes unrealistic assumptions about the level of marijuana consumption. Other estimates claiming to correct for this flaw claim that the market is between $2.1-$4.3 billion. The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime claims in its 2008 World Drug Report that typical U.S. retail prices are $10–15 per gram (approximately $280–420 per ounce). Street prices in North America are known to range from about $40–$400 per ounce ($1.4–$14/g), depending on quality.
Avoid using hemp oil for frying. It should be used in cold and warm dishes that are never heated above 121 degrees F. High heat breaks down polyunsaturated fats into harmful peroxides. Use Hemp Seed Oil as a flavor-enhancer in many recipes. Do not use as a substitute for frying oils. Keep bottles tightly sealed after opening and store in the refrigerator or freezer.
The passing of SB 218 through the Kentucky legislature created a new subsection of KRS 260.850m to 260.289, in which the Industrial Hemp Advisory Board outlines the purpose of an industrial hemp research program, establish license provisions, and create new requirements and license application procedures. This state’s approach is for the potential medical and industrial applications.
Third-party testing: Once a CBD oil is manufactured, CBD oil companies will often submit their products for third-party tests, which are conducted by non-company personnel to ensure the product is safe for public consumption and meets quality standards.CBD oils should always be accompanied with information about third-party tests; best practice is to avoid oils that do not supply these details.
Yet another benefit of essential fatty acids is mood health. Several studies have shown that Omega 3 supplementation can improve symptoms in bipolar disorder. Others have found improvements in. This could be because essential fatty acids are critical to maintaining brain function. Endocannabinoids are also essential for mood. The endocannabinoid system regulates the release of neurotransmitters, some of which play major roles in conditions like depression and anxiety. As mentioned previously, endocannabinoids are made from fat. Consuming extra essential fatty acids gives your body the ability to produce these lipids.
According to the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), "the amount of THC present in a cannabis sample is generally used as a measure of cannabis potency." The three main forms of cannabis products are the flower, resin (hashish), and oil (hash oil). The UNODC states that cannabis often contains 5% THC content, resin "can contain up to 20% THC content", and that "Cannabis oil may contain more than 60% THC content."
CBC is another lesser-known yet still crucial cannabinoid in marijuana, especially from a therapeutic perspective. While bereft of the psychoactive quality of THC (and to a lesser extent THCV), CBC is gaining popularity as an anxiety reducer. While research on cannabichromene lags behind others, there’s good reason to continue looking into its potential as a medicine.
Hemp being federally legal would be huge for the CBD industry, as CBD oil made from hemp extract (a plant that has very low amounts of THC) would be legal. A new, more available form of CBD would also allow for more research on the subject of cannabidiol, and perhaps the entire marijuana plant. More research brings the potential of coming closer to full legalization.
However, because no tools existed for quality control, it was impossible to prepare a standardized medicine, so patients often received a dose that was either too low, having no effect, or too high, resulting in serious side effects. Moreover, Cannabis extract was not water-soluble and therefore could not be injected (in contrast to, e.g., the opiates), whereas oral administration was found to be unreliable because of its slow and erratic absorption. Because of such drawbacks, the medicinal use of Cannabis increasingly disappeared in the beginning of the twentieth century, and in 1937 Cannabis was removed from the US pharmacopoeia, a move that was followed by most other Western countries.27 Isolation and structure elucidation of the first pure active substances from Cannabis was not achieved until the 1960s.29
Chronic pain is a major issue in the health sector and millions of people rely on pain medication to go about their normal lives, but synthetic painkillers are known for causing side effects that make them unsafe for long-term use. Alternative pain treatments like hemp oil have shown a lot of promise for people with injury-related pain, arthritis, and other types of chronic pain.
Ringo’s Gift: This cultivar is named after the cannabidiol pioneer, Lawrence Ringo. Ringo’s Gift is a cross between two other CBD-rich strains, AC/DC and Harle-tsu. Its CBD to THC ratio varies from 1:1 to 22:1, but it consistently favors CBD. Ringo’s Gift smells of earthy pine and promises full-bodied relaxation in tandem with calming cerebral effects which, together, silence pain and anxiety.
Leafly is the world’s largest cannabis information resource, empowering people in legal cannabis markets to learn about the right products for their lifestyle and wellness needs. Our team of cannabis professionals collectively share years of experience in all corners of the market, from growing and retail, to science and medicine, to data and technology.
Hemp oil is comprised of 25 percent protein, says Dr. Andrew Weil, the program director for the Arizona Center for Integrative Medicine, which is recognized by the Arizona Board of Regents. This high-quality protein provides amino acids in ratios similar to the protein in meats and eggs. The structure of hemp oil proteins makes them easily digestible. Compared to other oils, hemp oil provides the protein and amino acids the body needs without adding unnecessary calories.
There are hundreds of compounds in marijuana, but scientists believe the one responsible for the drugs' psychoactive effects is tetrahydrocannbinol, or THC. THC binds to cannabinoid receptors throughout the body, and marijuana's "high" comes from THC's binding to brain regions responsible for pleasure, time perception and pain, according to the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA).
Epidiolex is the first FDA-approved treatment in the U.S. that contains a purified drug substance derived from marijuana -- CBD -- and the first treatment for Dravet syndrome. In September 2018 the FDA rescheduled cannabidiol from a C-I controlled substance to a C-V controlled substance, meaning it has a proven medical use but a low risk of abuse. This change allows Epidiolex to be marketed in the U.S.
I suffer from Fibromyalgia, spinal stenosis, osteoporosis, arthritis, and 66 yeas of wear and tear. I was overwhelmed by the endless varieties of hemp oil even after reading all the product info, so I chose to go with Amazon’s pick.this has a subtle mint flavor and within 2days, I was seeing a reduction in pain, better mood, and improvements in my brain fog. They have a loyal customer now. Even the headache I have had for 6 months since being put on Gabapentin is gone which means I no longer take Advil like tic tacs!
As for phytocannabinoid-rich hemp oil, due to the presence of the hemp plant’s cannabinoids there are many additional uses and benefits with practically zero side effects. The most common use of this type of hemp oil is for chronic pain management, but many people also use it to treat some symptoms of cancer, among other diseases and conditions. Even the Food and Drug Administration recently approved a new CBD-based prescription medication.
A 2015 review found that the use of high CBD-to-THC strains of cannabis showed significantly fewer positive symptoms such as delusions and hallucinations, better cognitive function and both lower risk for developing psychosis, as well as a later age of onset of the illness, compared to cannabis with low CBD-to-THC ratios. A 2014 Cochrane review found that research was insufficient to determine the safety and efficacy to using cannabis to treat schizophrenia or psychosis. As of 2017, the molecular mechanisms for the anti-inflammatory and possible pain relieving effects of cannabis are under preliminary research.