Israel, another example, has led the way with ground-breaking research into cannabis cultivation. The country recently recognized medical marijuana as an official part of the nation’s branch of agriculture. Israel is already one of the world’s leading exporters of medical-grade cannabis. Recognizing marijuana cultivation as an official branch of the country’s agriculture will open up even more funds to support Israeli cannabis farmers.
It is hard to determine whether marijuana alone can cause cancer because many people who smoke marijuana also smoke cigarettes and use other drugs. Marijuana smoke contains some of the same cancer-causing compounds as tobacco, sometimes in higher concentrations. Studies show that someone who smokes five joints per day may be taking in as many cancer-causing chemicals as someone who smokes a full pack of cigarettes. Moreover, marijuana smokers usually inhale more deeply and hold their breath longer than tobacco smokers, which increases the lungs' exposure to carcinogenic smoke. Thus, puff for puff, smoking marijuana may increase the risk of cancer more than smoking tobacco does.
Just wanted to share with you that I have been ordering oil for my sister-in-law who had a Glioblastoma Multiform Brain Tumour. After surgery, 6 weeks of radiotherapy and 3 months of chemo (plus your amazing M10P treatments), my sister-in-law is tumour free as of today! Thank you so much for the service you provide. Feel free to share this story with other members who need a boost and some good news! Thanks again

People are turning to CBD oil to treat their pain more and more. Whether acute to chronic, pain can be located in different areas of the body and may be experienced at different intensities. This wide range of pain complaints among individual may call for different types of treatment that are more comprehensive than just swallowing a general prescription pill. The good news is that CBD can be applied topically or consumed orally. Furthermore, CBD can be taken sublingually, smoked, eaten, or even vaporized, depending on the product. In this way, CBD can treat pain very specifically rather than generally, because let’s face it, one size does not fit all.
This product does not work as well or as fast as the others on the market. I purchased to sample pack for numerous companies. This one didn’t seem to bring any relief. Plus I found out it had alcohol in it and that I had a small cut on my hand the hard way. I did give it a few tries and end up throwing it in the garbage. The gummies and capsules seem to work though.

Moreover, a patient survey conducted by Project CBD, declared that “…cannabis appears to be an effective pain management tool with few negative side effects.” The study went on to say that a “…significant decrease in opiate usage among elderly patients while taking medical cannabis [was observed during trial].” In short, it has been portrayed clearly numerous times through valid and well-publicized clinical studies that cannabis is a practical option in terms of efficient pain management.
This 2-ounce tub contains 600mg of CBD and costs $75. It contains a wide range of all-natural ingredients and is infused with premium quality CBD-rich hemp oil grown in Colorado. This CBD cream offers a subtle Blood Orange scent and rewards users with a silky texture. When you apply it to the sore area, you can expect to feel relief in a matter of minutes.
Our award-winning support staff, experienced cultivators, and network of healthcare practitioners are here to help remove barriers to medical cannabis. We’re honoured to be part of a movement that’s helping Canadians across the country access their medicine; and as we grow we will continue to provide patients with reliable access to safe, consistent, and effective medical cannabis.
Given its name, you might assume THCV shares psychoactive powers with its potent counterpart, THC. In reality, this cannabinoid is more like a cross between CBD and THC. From the former, it takes its modulating powers. Acting like THC “lite,” THCV like CBD can dampen the effects of a strong high. Yet at higher doses, THCV kicks into a psychoactive stimulant in its own right.
Refined hempseed oil is clear and colorless, with little flavor and lacks natural vitamins and antioxidants. Refined hempseed oil is primarily used in body care products. Industrial hempseed oil is used in lubricants, paints, inks, fuel, and plastics. Hempseed oil is used in the production of soaps, shampoos and detergents. The oil has a 3:1 ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 essential fatty acids.[3] It may also be used as a feedstock for the large-scale production of biodiesel.[4]
The degree to which a drug is reinforcing is determined partly by the by the rate of its delivery to the brain (Samaha and Robinson 2005). Sativex has effect onset in 15–40 minutes, peaking in a few hours, quite a bit slower than drugs of high abuse potential. It has been claimed that inclusion of CBD diminishes psychoactive effects of THC, and may lower potential drug abuse liability of the preparation (see Russo (2006b)) for discussion). Prior studies from Sativex clinical trials do not support the presence reinforcement or euphoria as problems in administration (Wade et al 2006).
Some studies state that while there is no proof for the gateway hypothesis,[263] young cannabis users should still be considered as a risk group for intervention programs.[264] Other findings indicate that hard drug users are likely to be poly-drug users, and that interventions must address the use of multiple drugs instead of a single hard drug.[265] Almost two-thirds of the poly drug users in the "2009/10 Scottish Crime and Justice Survey" used cannabis.[266]
Then, there’s HIA v. DEA – a lawsuit by a hemp trade association that challenges the agency’s classification of CBD as a Schedule I substance. Federal judges at the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals heard oral arguments in the case earlier this year. Clearly, attorneys representing hemp businesses have a different interpretation of federal law than the DEA.
Great pain relief, better than several other products we’ve tried. Aloe Vera, Arnica and Tea Tree are great additional ingredients but PLEAS GET RID OF THE FD&C Blue 1FC & Yellow 10 (food dye), Methylparaben & Alcohol. You took a great product and ruined it with these ingredients that have negative effects on our health (dye & paraben) or just smell bad and have a drying effect on the skin (alcohol). Please go back to the lab and improve the formulation to make this truly a great product that I’d continue to use and highly recommend to all.
Of course, because legal marijuana is in such a confusing transitional period, even here there are potential exceptions. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Epidiolex, a treatment for a rare form of pediatric epilepsy that contains CBD. The DEA decided to classify this as a Schedule 5 drug, the scheduling that indicates the lowest potential for addiction and abuse.
Quality is a particular concern, because cannabis plants easily soak up heavy metals from pesticides and other contaminants, Marcu says. If you are buying online, look for a company that documents how it tests its products. (If the website doesn’t indicate this, call and ask.) “Buying from a reputable manufacturer is crucial, because it matters how the plant is cultivated and processed,” Dr. Maroon says. One clue that a company is cutting corners: too low a cost. Good CBD is pricey—a bottle of high-quality capsules is sold in Cohen’s office for $140. But for many, it’s worth the money. Roth spent $60 on her tiny bottle. But when her energy returned the day she started taking CBD, she decided that was a small price to pay.

Yeah you are incorrect. Hemp cultivation is covered in the 2015 Farm Act. And is regulated by a states Dept. of Agriculture. Farmers can get licenses in states that have adopted the guidelines. There are currently in the Summer of 2017 thousands of acres of Federally LEGAL Hemp being grown across the country. Here is a link so you can read all about it… http://nationalhempassociation.org/


With domestic hemp programs coming online slowly in 2014-2016 and being legally distinct under law from Marijuana via the Farm Bill, producers of High CBD Hemp Oil will now be able to switch from imported base material from Europe and China to higher quality, domestically grown medicinal Hemp strains such as Charlotte's Web, leading to vast improvements in both potency per dollar spent as well as overall Cannabinoid profiles.

Cannabis has psychoactive and physiological effects when consumed.[44] The immediate desired effects from consuming cannabis include relaxation and euphoria (the "high" or "stoned" feeling), a general alteration of conscious perception, increased awareness of sensation, increased libido[45] and distortions in the perception of time and space. At higher doses, effects can include altered body image, auditory and/or visual illusions, pseudohallucinations and ataxia from selective impairment of polysynaptic reflexes. In some cases, cannabis can lead to dissociative states such as depersonalization[46][47] and derealization.[48]
In 1976, Canadian botanist Ernest Small[66] and American taxonomist Arthur Cronquist published a taxonomic revision that recognizes a single species of Cannabis with two subspecies: C. sativa L. subsp. sativa, and C. sativa L. subsp. indica (Lam.) Small & Cronq.[62] The authors hypothesized that the two subspecies diverged primarily as a result of human selection; C. sativa subsp. sativa was presumably selected for traits that enhance fiber or seed production, whereas C. sativa subsp. indica was primarily selected for drug production. Within these two subspecies, Small and Cronquist described C. sativa L. subsp. sativa var. spontanea Vav. as a wild or escaped variety of low-intoxicant Cannabis, and C. sativa subsp. indica var. kafiristanica (Vav.) Small & Cronq. as a wild or escaped variety of the high-intoxicant type. This classification was based on several factors including interfertility, chromosome uniformity, chemotype, and numerical analysis of phenotypic characters.[52][62][67]
After seasonal harvests of specific cultivars, these high-CBD hemp crops are put through a specialized solvent-free extraction process to yield a hemp oil that is naturally high in cannabidiol. This pure hemp extract is then tested for safety, quality, and cannabinoid content before being exported to our processing facilities in the United States. Importing any cannabis or hemp product into the United States is a complicated and serious task, so we leave nothing to chance before our high-CBD hemp oil makes its journey across the Atlantic Ocean.
Since 1929, Standard Process has been the visionary leader in whole food nutrient solutions. We apply systems thinking to holistic nutrition that empowers practitioners to transform lives. Dedicated to the whole food philosophy of our founder, Dr. Royal Lee, our goal is to carry on his mission to provide nutrients for the body that are as close as possible to how they are found in nature. 

“This is a really powerful compound,” says Mikhail Kogan, the medical director of the George Washington University Center for Integrative Medicine. “I’ve seen it work for a lot of my patients.” He prescribes high-CBD strains of cannabis regularly for such illnesses as epilepsy, post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, autoimmune disorders, autism and insomnia.

^ Hayakawa K, Mishima K, Hazekawa M, Sano K, Irie K, Orito K, Egawa T, Kitamura Y, Uchida N, Nishimura R, Egashira N, Iwasaki K, Fujiwara M (January 2008). "Cannabidiol potentiates pharmacological effects of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol via CB(1) receptor-dependent mechanism". Brain Research. 1188: 157–64. doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2007.09.090. PMID 18021759.


The psychoactive effects of cannabis are known to have a triphasic nature. Primary psychoactive effects include a state of relaxation, and to a lesser degree, euphoria from its main psychoactive compound, tetrahydrocannabinol. Secondary psychoactive effects, such as a facility for philosophical thinking, introspection and metacognition have been reported among cases of anxiety and paranoia.[94] Finally, the tertiary psychoactive effects of the drug cannabis, can include an increase in heart rate and hunger, believed to be caused by 11-OH-THC, a psychoactive metabolite of THC produced in the liver.
Put simply, “indica” strains are those associated with a strong body-high, feelings of sedation and relaxation. For this reason, indicas are often thought of as the “heavier” strains of cannabis, offering stronger highs that impact the whole body. They’re popular among marijuana users as pain relieving and sleep-inducing strains. Indicas are especially popular among medical cannabis patients.
THC, manufactured into a pill that is taken by mouth, not smoked, is available by prescription and can be used to treat the nausea and vomiting that go along with certain cancer treatments and to help AIDS patients eat more to maintain their weight. Another chemical related to THC, nabilone, has also been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for treating cancer patients who suffer from nausea.
Cannabinoids may offer significant “side benefits” beyond analgesia. These include anti-emetic effects, well established with THC, but additionally demonstrated for CBD (Pertwee 2005), the ability of THC and CBD to produce apoptosis in malignant cells and inhibit cancer-induced angiogenesis (Kogan 2005; Ligresti et al 2006), as well as the neuroprotective antioxidant properties of the two substances (Hampson et al 1998), and improvements in symptomatic insomnia (Russo et al 2007).
Marijuana can be addictive because it can cause compulsive, uncontrollable drug craving, seeking, and use, even in the face of negative health and social consequences. In 2004, more than 298,317 people entering drug treatment programs reported marijuana as their primary drug of abuse. Some heavy marijuana users show signs of withdrawal when they do not use the drug. They develop symptoms such as restlessness, loss of appetite, trouble sleeping, weight loss, and shaky hands.

The high lipid-solubility of cannabinoids results in their persisting in the body for long periods of time.[139] Even after a single administration of THC, detectable levels of THC can be found in the body for weeks or longer (depending on the amount administered and the sensitivity of the assessment method).[139] A number of investigators have suggested that this is an important factor in marijuana's effects, perhaps because cannabinoids may accumulate in the body, particularly in the lipid membranes of neurons.[140]
This does nothing for me. I have been taking between 4 and 8 Aleeve a day for back pain related to kyphosis and hoped this would help me cut down on those medications. This is hemp oil, not CBD oil. After trying this and receiving no results I switched to CBD oil from a well reviewed company and the CBD oil is helping. I now take the CBD oil twice a day and have noticeable results. I have cut my regular pain meds to one or two a day.

CBD Pain Cream is a new topical product that reduces pain and inflammation that get in the way of everyday life. Are you tired of waking up in the morning and having to deal with pain right off the bat? What would it be like to wake up feeling pain-free, refreshed, and energized for the day ahead? Don’t let pain run your life! Use natural CBD to relieve pain so you can get back to what’s important. CBD comes from cannabis, but don’t worry. This product is perfectly legal and safe to use. Unlike the THC compound, the CBD is non-psychoactive or mind-altering. This means you get all the health benefits of cannabis with none of the side effects. To order your free trial of CBD Pain Cream, click the button below! 

Cultivating hemp is illegal in the US; importing hemp and hemp products, including hemp oil, rich in CBD, is not. How bloody hard is that to know? Why is Leafly allowing the publication of such contrarian articles? Lust for the fortunes that deputy editor, Barcott, is still chasing? DEA’s Rosenberg rule is just a rule … the 9th Circuit Court blasted them in the 2001 case and PERMANENTLY ENJOINED the DEA from making law. They can write all the rules they want, but they cannot make law. That is the job of Congress, and so far, Congress has not made a damn ruling about ANYTHING … but hang in there!
The Hon. Tammy Anne Franks, is a Greens member of the South Australian Legislative Council where she has actively championed access to medicinal cannabis for South Australians in that Parliament. She has early this year had her private members bill for legal Industrial Hemp production and cultivation (including medicinal cannabis research crops) passed through that Parliament prompting the Minister for Manufacturing and Innovation to establish the SA Office for Industrial Hemp and Medicinal Cannabis within the Department of State Development.
Very few randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been conducted using smoked cannabis (Campbell et al 2001) despite many anecdotal claims (Grinspoon and Bakalar 1997). One such study documented slight weight gain in HIV/AIDS subjects with no significant immunological sequelae (Abrams et al 2003). A recent brief trial of smoked cannabis (3.56% THC cigarettes 3 times daily) in HIV-associated neuropathy showed positive results on daily pain, hyperalgesia and 30% pain reduction (vs 15% in placebo) in 50 subjects over a treatment course of only 5 days (Abrams et al 2007) (Table 1). This short clinical trial also demonstrated prominent adverse events associated with intoxication. In Canada, 21 subjects with chronic pain sequentially smoked single inhalations of 25 mg of cannabis (0, 2.5, 6.0, 9.5% THC) via a pipe three times a day for 5 days to assess effects on pain (Ware et al 2007) with results the authors termed “modest”: no changes were observed in acute neuropathic pain scores, and a very low number of subjects noted 30% pain relief at the end of the study (Table 1). Even after political and legal considerations, it remains extremely unlikely that crude cannabis could ever be approved by the FDA as a prescription medicine as outlined in the FDA Botanical Guidance document (Food and Drug Administration 2004; Russo 2006b), due to a lack of rigorous standardization of the drug, an absence of Phase III clinical trials, and pulmonary sequelae (bronchial irritation and cough) associated with smoking (Tashkin 2005). Although cannabis vaporizers reduce potentially carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons, they have not been totally eliminated by this technology (Gieringer et al 2004; Hazekamp et al 2006).

Various strains of "medical marijuana" are found to have a significant variation in the ratios of CBD-to-THC, and are known to contain other non-psychotropic cannabinoids.[61] Any psychoactive marijuana, regardless of its CBD content, is derived from the flower (or bud) of the genus Cannabis. Non-psychoactive hemp (also commonly-termed industrial hemp), regardless of its CBD content, is any part of the cannabis plant, whether growing or not, containing a ∆-9 tetrahydrocannabinol concentration of no more than 0.3% on a dry-weight basis.[62] Certain standards are required for legal growing, cultivating, and producing the hemp plant. The Colorado Industrial Hemp Program registers growers of industrial hemp and samples crops to verify that the dry-weight THC concentration does not exceed 0.3%.[62]
These are one of the most popular (and effective) choices for arthritis and other forms of localized pain and inflammation. Since the skin acts as an excellent semi-permeable membrane that “let’s the good stuff and keeps the bad stuff out,” rubbing CBD-infused creams into the affected area has proved to be quite effective in terms of both pain and inflammation reduction.

Since the beginning of the 20th century, most countries have enacted laws against the cultivation, possession or transfer of cannabis.[220] These laws have impacted adversely on cannabis cultivation for non-recreational purposes, but there are many regions where handling of cannabis is legal or licensed. Many jurisdictions have lessened the penalties for possession of small quantities of cannabis so that it is punished by confiscation and sometimes a fine, rather than imprisonment, focusing more on those who traffic the drug on the black market.

Bought this for my girlfriend as she has shoulder pain from playing bass for about 10 years. This gives her instant relief and a nice cooling sensation to keep the pain at bay. In our experience with it we will say that it has a very strong scent (Almost menthol/eucalyptus like) and is very powerful so depending on the person you may only need a small application of it. Overall though this is a great pain relieving product without the Big Pharma ingredients. Definitely worth a try or to have on hand for those aches and pains that we all get at some point.

Everything you need to know about marijuana (cannabis) Marijuana, or cannabis, is the most commonly used illicit drug in the world. It alters the mood and affects nearly every organ in the body. With at least 120 active compounds, marijuana may have health benefits as well as risks. We describe these, addiction, and withdrawal. Learn more about cannabis here. Read now


Outside of those four states, consumers must put their trust in the manufacturer. Sometimes that’s warranted, and sometimes it’s not. In 2016 and 2016, the FDA ran tests on several CBD products and found that many of the products had far less CBD than advertised, and in some cases none at all. You can find those test results here for 2015, and here for 2016. (These FDA tests were done as a one-off project. CBD products are not approved by the FDA for the prevention, mitigation, or treatment of any disease or condition.)
So. According to the Controlled Substance Act definition itself, certain parts of the cannabis plant are clearly illegal, while others fall into a grayer area. One of these – for the most part – is CBD extracted from the “legal” parts of the cannabis plant, and non-marijuana industrial hemp plants, which, as defined by Section 7606 of the Farm Bill are cannabis plants with less than 0.3 percent THC.
There is very little risk of intoxication from hemp oil as all forms of hemp oil come from food-grain strains of hemp. The authors of a study in the journal Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research note that food-grain strains of hemp must contain less than 0.3 percent tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). THC is the compound that causes the so-called "high" of marijuana.
After revisions to cannabis scheduling in the UK, the government moved cannabis back from a class C to a class B drug. A purported reason was the appearance of high potency cannabis. They believe skunk accounts for between 70 and 80% of samples seized by police[162] (despite the fact that skunk can sometimes be incorrectly mistaken for all types of herbal cannabis).[163][164] Extracts such as hashish and hash oil typically contain more THC than high potency cannabis flowers.[165]
Can cannabis help treat psoriasis? The active cannabinoids in cannabis may be an effective treatment for psoriasis. Research shows that they offer potential health benefits that could relieve the symptoms of psoriasis. They may be able to reduce inflammation and itching, control pain, and even heal wounds. Learn more about cannabis for psoriasis here. Read now
Hemp being federally legal would be huge for the CBD industry, as CBD oil made from hemp extract (a plant that has very low amounts of THC) would be legal. A new, more available form of CBD would also allow for more research on the subject of cannabidiol, and perhaps the entire marijuana plant. More research brings the potential of coming closer to full legalization.
In June 2018, the FDA approved the drug Epidiolex, an oral preparation of pure CBD for treatment of two rare and severe forms of epilepsy in children. The drug is made by the GW Pharmaceutical Company and was tested in three randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials, including 516 patients. It was found to be effective in reducing the frequency of seizures.
Cannabidiol (CBD) oil is used by some people with chronic pain. CBD oil may reduce pain, inflammation, and overall discomfort related to a variety of health conditions. CBD oil is a product made from cannabis. It’s a type of cannabinoid, a chemical found naturally in marijuana and hemp plants. It doesn’t cause the “high” feeling often associated with cannabis, which is caused by a different type of cannabinoid called THC.
In 2001, the Drug Enforcement Administration aimed to change that by attempting to ban people and companies from importing and selling food products containing hemp seed and oil. The Hemp Industries Association responded to this block by successfully suing the DEA, arguing that hemp oil is primarily consumed as a nutritional culinary oil and used in body care products — not to get people high — and therefore, should be allowed.
Before purchasing any CBD product in these states (aside from the 8 mentioned above) you must have a medical prescription issued by a certified medical doctor. Each state has a particular concentration of THC it allows to be present in a CBD product, with the percentage ranging from 0.3% — 8%. (See details in table 1.1 below). Even though the legal situation seems to be shifting in a positive direction, if you are in any of these states, it is very important to be aware of the state’s laws towards CBD.
Hemp oil is a "drying oil", as it can polymerize into a solid form. Due to its polymer-forming properties, hemp oil is used on its own or blended with other oils, resins, and solvents as an impregnator and varnish in wood finishing, as a pigment binder in oil paints, and as a plasticizer and hardener in putty. It has uses similar to linseed oil and characteristics similar to tung oil.[34] 

Decades of research indicate that cannabinoids like CBD interact with the body’s endocannabinoid system, a complex system that contributes to a variety of biological processes like inflammation responses, relaxation, sleeping, and appetite. By linking with the two main types of cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2, which are found on cells throughout the body, CBD interacts with the endocannabinoid system, helping it in the regulation of homeostasis — the body’s natural state of balance.
Topicals represent a newer emerging market in medical marijuana products geared toward health and beauty. Cannabinoids can be absorbed through the skin for certain therapeutic benefits without any psychoactivity. Additionally, the essential oils in hemp and cannabis provide many benefits for skin health. From moisturizers to shampoos and deodorants, medical cannabis products continue to diversify.

PTSD. My husband suffers chronic PTSD from active military service. We live not far from a large Army base and though my husband served with another counties military we hear stories constantly of family breakdowns over PTSD. It’s not a easy path but I’m hoping one day to find something to stop the endless trips to the psych ward. It’s just not right that those who serve come home to no government help.
Nabilone (Cesamet) (Figure 1), is a synthetic dimethylheptyl analogue of THC (British Medical Association 1997) that displays greater potency and prolonged half-life. Serum levels peak in 1–4 hours (Lemberger et al 1982). It was also primarily developed as an anti-emetic in chemotherapy, and was recently re-approved for this indication in the USA. Prior case reports have noted analgesic effects in case reports in neuropathic pain (Notcutt et al 1997) and other pain disorders (Berlach et al 2006). Sedation and dysphoria were prominent sequelae. An RCT of nabilone in 41 post-operative subjects actually documented exacerbation of pain scores after thrice daily dosing (Beaulieu 2006) (Table 1). An abstract of a study of 82 cancer patients on nabilone claimed improvement in pain levels after varying periods of follow-up compared to patients treated without this agent (Maida 2007). However, 17 subjects dropped out, and the study was neither randomized nor controlled, and therefore is not included in Table 1.
The high lipid-solubility of cannabinoids results in their persisting in the body for long periods of time.[139] Even after a single administration of THC, detectable levels of THC can be found in the body for weeks or longer (depending on the amount administered and the sensitivity of the assessment method).[139] A number of investigators have suggested that this is an important factor in marijuana's effects, perhaps because cannabinoids may accumulate in the body, particularly in the lipid membranes of neurons.[140]
We use a combination of both Subcritical and Supercritical extractions. This allows us to perform a “fractional extraction” by first extracting at lower pressures to remove the lighter, temperature-sensitive volatile oils, and then subsequently extracting the same material at a higher pressure to remove the remaining oils. This approach is the best because it allows us to extract a complete range of cannabinoids, terpenes, essential oils, and other beneficial phytochemicals that yield a more potent blend. 

A. When a product is in violation of the FD&C Act, FDA considers many factors in deciding whether or not to initiate an enforcement action. Those factors include, among other things, agency resources and the threat to the public health. FDA also may consult with its federal and state partners in making decisions about whether to initiate a federal enforcement action.
Several CBD manufacturers would not speak on the record for fear of inviting federal retaliation, but said they’ve recently had trouble selling their products to non-cannabis retail stores. In January, the Seattle Central Co-op pulled CBD products from its shelves in reaction to the DEA rule. Meanwhile, CBD remains available online and at many retail health stores across the nation.
For example, most people believe that sublingual consumption results in a faster effect while applying CBD to the skin might take longer but its effects also last longer. However, other users believe that because you apply CBD cream to the skin, it absorbs faster and offers more targeted pain relief. It is important to note that most CBD creams don’t act transdermally which would mean they pass through the skin and into the bloodstream. Instead, they are absorbed into the top layer of your skin which is why they are classified as ‘topicals.’
There are approximately 60 unique cannabinoids in cannabis plants, which can be classified as hemp plants or marijuana plants (there’s a difference!). CBD is one of them and is the second-most prevalent cannabinoid found in the plant; THC is another. This distinction is absolutely critical to understand because THC is the cannabinoid responsible for the “high” produced by traditional marijuana; it’s where the negative connotations and associations generally begin.
The body produces its own chemicals called endocannabinoids that modulate biological processes throughout the entire body. As such, these endocannabinoids have wide-ranging effects on everything from fertility to pain. Phytocannabinoids are compounds found in nature that influence and support the ECS. They are the compounds responsible for the health benefits of Thorne’s Hemp Oil +.

Cannabidiol (CBD) is a subclass of Phytocannabinoids and one among one twenty cannabis compounds. It is hailed for its ability to be meditative, without causing a euphoric high. This non-addictive miracle cannabinoid has been the talk of the town and the core of numerous experiments. The anti-inflammatory properties of CBD have inspired the marketing of its by-products, such as CBD oil, for pain relief and relaxation.
Before the 1960s, many Americans had never heard of marijuana, but today it is a widely used illegal drug. It is usually smoked as a cigarette (typically called a "joint") or in a pipe or bong. Marijuana also appears in "blunts" (cigars that have been emptied of tobacco and refilled with marijuana) and "vapes," or electronic cigarettes (E-cigs). Marijuana cigarettes or blunts have come to sometimes include crack cocaine, a combination known by various street names like "primos" or "woolies." Joints and blunts are also sometimes dipped in PCP and called "happy sticks," "wicky sticks," "love boat," or "tical." Some users mix marijuana in food or use it to brew tea.
Hemp oil is comprised of 25 percent protein, says Dr. Andrew Weil, the program director for the Arizona Center for Integrative Medicine, which is recognized by the Arizona Board of Regents. This high-quality protein provides amino acids in ratios similar to the protein in meats and eggs. The structure of hemp oil proteins makes them easily digestible. Compared to other oils, hemp oil provides the protein and amino acids the body needs without adding unnecessary calories.
The Duquenois–Levine test is commonly used as a screening test in the field, but it cannot definitively confirm the presence of cannabis, as a large range of substances have been shown to give false positives.[151] Despite this, it is common in the United States for prosecutors to seek plea bargains on the basis of positive D–L tests, claiming them to be conclusive, or even to seek conviction without the use of gas chromatography confirmation, which can only be done in the lab.[152] In 2011, researchers at John Jay College of Criminal Justice reported that dietary zinc supplements can mask the presence of THC and other drugs in urine.[153] However, a 2013 study conducted by researchers at the University of Utah School of Medicine refute the possibility of self-administered zinc producing false-negative urine drug tests.[154]

The use of cannabis for pain relief dates back to ancient China, according to a report published in the journal Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research. It’s thought that CBD oil might help ease chronic pain in part by reducing inflammation. In addition, CBD oil is said to promote sounder sleep and, in turn, treat sleep disruption commonly experienced by people with chronic pain.


Rat offspring exposed to THC — tetrahydrocannabinol, the chief psychoactive ingredient in cannabis — and others that were not had to learn how to press one of two levers to get a sugar pellet reward. — Erik Lacitis, The Seattle Times, "‘Something wasn’t clicking’: WSU study shows offspring of pregnant rats exposed to THC have impaired development," 20 Nov. 2018 It's also derived from cannabidiol (CBD), one of the major compounds found in cannabis. — Sarah Jacoby, SELF, "Updated: What You Need to Know About Epidiolex, the First FDA-Approved Drug Made From Cannabis," 1 Nov. 2018 Attendees must bring their own cannabis, but smoking, edibles, and vaping are all encouraged as part of the creative process and the social experience. — Sarah Shemkus, BostonGlobe.com, "5 marijuana-infused things to do in New England," 21 June 2018 But Salmonella can also turn up in unexpected places — like in tahini, or on cantaloupes, or even drugs like cannabis and kratom. — Rachel Becker, The Verge, "Machine learning could help figure out what pooped on your produce," 12 Dec. 2018 Ashland, Oregon is wine country, but better: vineyards provide diversity without overwhelm, and the burgeoning cannabis industry grows some of the best in the world. — Ella Riley-adams, Vogue, "Why This Oregon Town Could Be the Next Napa," 8 Aug. 2018 The Starbucks of the cannabis industry hasn’t been created yet. — Patrick Sisson, Curbed, "Cannabis, coworking, and the marijuana-industry land rush," 24 July 2018 The idea for Kikoko tea came from a mutual friend, Jan, who used cannabis as an alternative to pharmaceuticals to treat pain, nausea, anxiety, insomnia, and loss of appetite during her battle with ovarian cancer. — Steffi Victorioso, Los Angeles Magazine, "Local Women Are Hosting Fancy “High Teas” With the Help of a Cannabis Brand," 29 May 2018 Attorney General Jeff Sessions has made no secret of his virulent opposition to the legalization of cannabis in any form. — Fred Vogelstein, WIRED, "My Son Pioneered an Epilepsy Drug Derived From Marijuana. An FDA Panel Just Approved It," 20 Apr. 2018
In what may be the only chemical synthesis paper ever to thank incense sellers in its acknowledgments, Jürg Gertsch of the University of Bern and colleagues confirmed the properties of PET that make it similar to THC. Publishing October 24 in Science Advances, the researchers show through a variety of tests that PET from these Radula species looks and acts a lot like THC from Cannabis.  “Curiosity-driven research can lead to interesting results,” says Daniele Piomelli, professor of anatomy and neurobiology at the University of California, Irvine, who was not involved in the study. “This is solid work, very credible, showing that this type of liverwort contains compounds that are akin both in structure and pharmaceutical activity to psychoactive cannabinoids in the cannabis plant.”
With the increasing hype surrounding CBD, some — including this author — have speculated that it will become the next health fad, like taking fish oil or opting for a gluten-free diet, whether or not the research to support far-reaching health benefit claims pans out (see this recent New York Times op-ed by Cornell Medical College psychiatrist Richard Friedman urging caution). “Big Beverage” companies like Coca-Cola have even been exploring whether they should jump in the ring lest they miss out, bringing CBD infused drinks to the mass market sometime in the not-too-distant future (see my blogpost "Coca, Cola, and Cannabis: Psychoactive Drugs as Beverages").
Distinguishing cannabis and hemp can be confusing, so let's make it simple. There are many varietals of Cannabis sativa, all of which have different amounts of THC and CBD. Cannabis sativa varietals that have more than 0.3 percent THC are commonly referred to as marijuana. Hemp is any varietal of Cannabis sativa that contains less than 0.3 percent THC.
The plant was first given its taxonomic identification by Carl Linnaeus in 1753 and thoroughly described to Westerners in the 1800s, when the medical doctor William O'Shaughnessy gave a report to the Medical and Physical Society of Calcutta in India in 1839. The doctor described its effects on people and did a few case reports on "gunjah," the Indian name for the drug.
In July 2014, North Carolina enacted HB 1220, known as North Carolina Epilepsy Alternative Treatment Act, creating a pilot program that allows medical use of CBD-rich oil only for registered patients diagnosed by a neurologist at one of four universities as having intractable epilepsy that has not been responsive to at least three other treatment options.
A clinical endocannabinoid deficiency has been postulated to be operative in certain treatment-resistant conditions (Russo 2004), and has received recent support in findings that anandamide levels are reduced over controls in migraineurs (Sarchielli et al 2006), that a subset of fibromyalgia patients reported significant decreased pain after THC treatment (Schley et al 2006), and the active role of the ECS in intestinal pain and motility in irritable bowel syndrome (Massa and Monory 2006) wherein anecdotal efficacy of cannabinoid treatments have also been claimed.
At an epidemiological level, a dose response relationship exists between cannabis use and increased risk of psychosis[126][127][128] and earlier onset of psychosis.[129] Although the epidemiological association is robust, evidence to prove a causal relationship is lacking.[130] But a biological causal pathway is plausible, especially if there is a genetic predisposition to mental illness, in which case cannabis may be a trigger.[131][better source needed]
In contrast, THC did not tamp down levels of these inflammation-related molecules, called prostaglandins. “These prostaglandins are involved in many processes (such as) memory loss, neuroinflammation, hair loss and vasoconstriction,” he says. That means PET is “highly interesting for medicinal applications, as we can expect fewer adverse effects while still having pharmacologically important effects.” The reduced potency of PET also might put a damper on any interest in the liverwort for recreational use, especially in an era of increasingly loosened cannabis regulation.
Whatever the reason behind the confusion stirred up by Mr. Curtis Hill in the November of 2017, it seems we can finally put it in the back burner. People who were using this as a health regiment for various ailments (especially the epileptic ones) shall continue to use it as a remedy. It is because there is no need to worry about any law restricting it.
Moreover, scientists at the Cajal Institute showed promising results in regards to CBD and Multiple Sclerosis. They used animal models and cell cultures to find that CBD reversed inflammatory responses; within only ten days, mice that were used in the study had superior motor skills and showed progression in their condition. To date, there have been well over 20,000 published scientific articles on cannabinoids and their related effects on all sorts of medical ailments.
Many monoecious varieties have also been described,[20] in which individual plants bear both male and female flowers.[21] (Although monoecious plants are often referred to as "hermaphrodites", true hermaphrodites – which are less common in Cannabis – bear staminate and pistillate structures together on individual flowers, whereas monoecious plants bear male and female flowers at different locations on the same plant.) Subdioecy (the occurrence of monoecious individuals and dioecious individuals within the same population) is widespread.[22][23][24] Many populations have been described as sexually labile.[25][26][27]
A. The agency has received reports of adverse events in patients using marijuana to treat medical conditions. The FDA is currently reviewing those reports and will continue to monitor adverse event reports for any safety signals attributable to marijuana and marijuana products, with a focus on serious adverse effects associated with the use of marijuana.
The cannabis plant contains a range of cannabinoids – some of which are psychoactive (affect the mind) and some not. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) or, more precisely, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), is a psychoactive constituent of the hemp plant. As THC can cause symptoms associated with psychosis, products that contain THC are subject to strict controls under the Misuse of Drugs Acts 1977 to 2016.
Before the 1960s, many Americans had never heard of marijuana, but today it is a widely used illegal drug. It is usually smoked as a cigarette (typically called a "joint") or in a pipe or bong. Marijuana also appears in "blunts" (cigars that have been emptied of tobacco and refilled with marijuana) and "vapes," or electronic cigarettes (E-cigs). Marijuana cigarettes or blunts have come to sometimes include crack cocaine, a combination known by various street names like "primos" or "woolies." Joints and blunts are also sometimes dipped in PCP and called "happy sticks," "wicky sticks," "love boat," or "tical." Some users mix marijuana in food or use it to brew tea.
When California passed Prop. 64, there was a provision that allowed for the production of industrial hemp. Now, that little provision could generate quick growth (pun intended, naturally) for its many applications in the Golden State.It led the forefront for THC now it could be the American leader for hemp CBD. California led the cannabis reform and now will be one of the leaders in an ever expanding cannabis ecosystem.
Of course, hemp oils are not marijuana oils, but this illustrates some of the complications arising from various states legal marijuana programs and medical marijuana programs in 2018.  Some states are allowing for the sales of CBD oils that contain zero % THC, while .03% is the widely accepted standard for industrial hemp classification in other countries and U.S. states. While I am unaware of anyone being prosecuted for simple possession of hemp based CBD oil in the United States in the last 4 years, one should consult their current state laws when purchasing hemp based CBD oils online.  Officials in Tennessee moved recently in February 2018 to shutter over 20 local tobacco and smoke type shops, that were selling CBD gummies among other products, alleging them to be derived from "marijuana". (These charges have all been dropped)  Interestingly, Tennessee is also chief among the U.S. states who are currently growing hemp for CBD extraction, under the provisions of the 2014 Farm Bill.

In 1924, Russian botanist D.E. Janichevsky concluded that ruderal Cannabis in central Russia is either a variety of C. sativa or a separate species, and proposed C. sativa L. var. ruderalis Janisch, and Cannabis ruderalis Janisch, as alternative names.[48] In 1929, renowned plant explorer Nikolai Vavilov assigned wild or feral populations of Cannabis in Afghanistan to C. indica Lam. var. kafiristanica Vav., and ruderal populations in Europe to C. sativa L. var. spontanea Vav.[53][62] In 1940, Russian botanists Serebriakova and Sizov proposed a complex classification in which they also recognized C. sativa and C. indica as separate species. Within C. sativa they recognized two subspecies: C. sativa L. subsp. culta Serebr. (consisting of cultivated plants), and C. sativa L. subsp. spontanea (Vav.) Serebr. (consisting of wild or feral plants). Serebriakova and Sizov split the two C. sativa subspecies into 13 varieties, including four distinct groups within subspecies culta. However, they did not divide C. indica into subspecies or varieties.[48][64]
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